FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Section 27
This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated
with recurring questions asked by photographers. If you would like to
add a tidbit of knowledge to this list just send it to ANDPPH@rit.edu
who will gladly add it to this collection. For complete table of content
send message to email@example.com with FAQ$txt in the Subject: line
These files are available in SECTIONS.
This is Section 27 and its contents are listed below.
27.01 -< BIG photographers databank!!!! >-
27.02 -< California Museum of Photography on Internet >-
27.03 -< Dealing with VERY contrasty negatives >-
27.04 -< Contrast Control with the Sterry Process >-
27.05 -< PSA (Photo Society of America) address >-
27.06 -< Comprehensive Copyright Info Source >-
27.07 -< Photokina address in US >-
27.08 -< Basic Astrophotography Pointers and Info >-
27.09 -< Image Usage Rights - A primer >-
27.10 -< Photo Artisans Guild info >-
27.11 -< Reversal Processing of Ilford Films >-
27.12 -< Bellows - basic instruction in making one >-
27.13 -< Kodak's Ultra Fast and Ultra Grainy Recording Film >-
Note 27.01 -< BIG photographers databank!!!! >-
> NEED INFO ABOUT PHOTOGRAPHERS? Check out this database! Look for some
of your favorite instructors on this list to see where they have
exhibited and where some of their work is collected.
For the past two years, one component of the NEH and Pew supported
collaboration between George Eastman House and Harry Ransom Humanities
Research Center/U Texas has been documentation of photographic
exhibits and photographers.
To date, those who TELNET to HRHRC.CC.UTEXAS.EDU and sign on as GUEST
have a couple of ways to access the 2100 exhibitions and participants
processed so far. Use 'E' (as in EXHIBIT) at the main menu for the
CHRONOLOGICAL approach. Every year from 1839 to 1995 is now
In the database, EXHIBITIONs are treated as 'entities' in the
relational structure which also includes BIOGRAPHIES of makers of
photographs, CATALOG records for individual photographs, BIB-CITATIONS
for sources cited in any of the other entities, and INSTITUTIONS to
describe the public collectors and exhibitors of photographs. What
makes it truly a database is that all these entities are interlinked.
There are currently 19,928 photographers who have 1 or more exhibits listed.
There are 43,131 exhibition occurrences (averaging 2.16/photographer).
Exhibitions, of course, vary from solo to large group shows (see "Family of
Man" - hint; search 1955, or Steichen). Current average is 20 photographers/
An alternative to YEAR is to look at MAKERs (photographers) (selection 1 on
main menu). Do the obvious, select Stieglitz (remember we're mixed case), and
you'll get vitals on the Alf, as well as counts of exhibits in which
he had work (in his lifetime) as well as exhibits which he jurored/curated.
You can branch to either of these lists of exhibits and see vitals about the
exhibit as well as who else was in it, etc. (Great recursive loops backwards
and forwards are possible).
In a smaller number of cases, the exhibit records link to GEH or HRC catalog
records (and vice versa). For example, both GEH and HRC loaned photos to
"Art of Fixing a Shadow" (you'll find it - complete with travel venues -
under 1989, or under any of the 4 curators).
1. The 2100 exhibitions listed to date are only the tip of proverbial
iceberg. You may expect this to easily reach 3000 within the next year.
2. The project scope ONLY encompases exhibits at public institutions such
as museums, libraries, camera clubs, etc. With the exception of '291' (already
processed), exhibits at 'commercial' galleries aren't included.
3. In addition to a steady stream of new data, there is a major new SEARCH
feature (might be ready in time for Christmas) in the works. It will permit
selection of exhibiting and/or collecting INSTITUTIONS (active and defunct)
with presentation of INSTITUTIONs' vitals as well as opportunity to branch
either to its population of photographers (analogous to front section of
--Index to American Photographic Collections--) OR to its exhibition
In fact, several hundred of the collections participating in --Index-- have
this past year provided their institutional exhibition histories (not yet
data entered). There are already substantial samplings for MOMA, RPS,
Camera Club of New York, SFMOMA, MOPA, and many others. We've always tended
to build the data in advance (and in anticipation) of the search engine.
Feedback has always been useful to this work. Nominations of exhibits to
include are most welcome. Exhibit catalogs are the most authoritative
sources, although we do use (and cite) reviews, annual reports, etc.
My favorite anecdote from work to date is the letter received from Barry
Goldwater whom we wrote after running across his name in several 1930s
'Salons'. As if just waiting for someone to ask, he has handy a listing
of all 135 exhibits in which he particiapted before going off to 'war' after
which he returned and got busy doing 'other things' than photography. We don't
yet have 135 (lifetime) exhibits for STIEGLITZ!
George Eastman House
716-271-3361 ex 353
Note 27.02 -< California Museum of Photography on Internet >-
>Does anybody have any information on how one accesses the California Museum
>of Photography (Riverside) exhibitions "posted" on the Internet exhibit?
Just type "gopher galaxy.ucr.edu" at the unix system promt.
Once you're in the root server at UCR, choose #6 (Campus Events),
then #2 (California Museum of Photography), then #3 (Network
Exhibitions). From there, download whatever sounds interesting.
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Paul R. Howard)
Note 27.03 -< Dealing with VERY contrasty negatives >-
>I'm printing some glass negs done in the Himalayan range in 1931. The
>contrast range of the negs exceeds that of the paper.
Depending on your needs, you might want to consider two
alternatives to making a mask.
One is a little messy, but imitates POP (printing-out-papers) and
therefore is self masking for the darkest tones. Use test strips
to find the best printing time for the lightest tones on a normal (or
higher) grade of paper. Then develop a sheet paper for about one
minute, before exposure. Carefully drain or squeegie it ( a couple
of drops of Photo-flo per liter helps) and enlarge onto it for part
of the exposure. Let the print develop for about one minute,
complete the exposure and develop the print normally. Contrast is
determined by the first exposure--the longer it is, the greater the
overall contrast. [I first encountered this method in and article by
Obviously this is only for enlargements. If you can rig up a
jig to align a piece of plastic or a developer tray under the
enlarger, you can be pretty accurate for repeated placing of the
paper, especially if you trace out a piece on the plastic or tray
with a marker. You should also test for safelight fog, since the
paper is exposed to it for a long time, compared to normal processing
The other alternative is based on the Sterry process and can be
used for any black-and-white print. It was proposed by David Kachel
in a series of articles on contrast reduction and involves bleaching
the print in a _very_ dilute solution before development. The
easiest method is to use the bleach from Kodak's sepia toner kit.
Mix to make a 1 liter solution; take 100ml of that and make up
another liter. Begin your experiments with 10ml of the second
solution added to 1 liter of water. Bleach the exposed print (on #2
or #3 paper) for 1-2 minutes and then develop normally. If you need
lower contrast than 2 minutes yields, add more bleach from the second
solution in 10ml increments. If you need less contrast reduction, use
less bleach. A liter is good for no more than 8 8"x10" prints,
including test strips.
Both methods can offer an amazing degree of contrast reduction
for the nastiest of those "hard as nails" negatives and are much more
convenient than making masks. I have not used the first method since
I read about the second, but it was very manageble, if a bit messy.
* Nathan Prichard *
* Kentucky Historical Society *
* Frankfort, KY *
* email@example.com *
Note 27.04 -< Contrast Control with the Sterry Process >-
The Sterry Process
a process for tone control
(c)1993 James W. Henderson, RBP
The Sterry process was developed by John Sterry in 1904 (LeClerc 1904). He
found that a weekly ammoniated dichromate solution would reduce formation
of silver proportionately more in the highlight area than in the shadow
area of the print. He exposed photographic paper for the highlight detail
of the negative, regardless of the amount of overexposure that occurred in
the shadow area. He then immersed the print in the bichromate solution,
rinsed it and processed it normally. The resulting print exhibited "...a
very great softening of gradation." The Sterry process was later
recognized as one of true proportional contrast reduction, as contrasted
with an overall reduction in density (Sowerly 1956).
Today, the Sterry process exists as an obscure process in the footnotes of
a few esoteric photolab manuals (Wall & Jordan 1976). There are several
instances, however, when the Sterry process could save a great deal of
time. One such instance is X- ray reproduction. Normally photographed on
sheet or roll film, processing is done around a time-temperature
combination that hopefully yields a negative printable on a contrast 2
(normal) printing paper. A slightly contrasty negative is still capable
of reproducing the full tonal range of the original X-ray on a grade 1 or
0. Occasionally, however, the contrast range of the negative exceeds even
that of a grade 0. This situation generally creates a great deal of
frustration in the darkroom, generally remedied by excessive dodging and
burning, or even re- shooting.
Understanding how the Sterry process "...reduces contrast" and results in a
"...very great softening of gradation" will permit its full potential to be
realized and applied in a practical way. both film and paper can be
physically described by their characteristic curves. Exposure of light
sensitive material to light results in density being deposited in the
emulsion. The amount of silver deposited is directly proportional to
exposure. If increasing exposure is plotted against the resulting increase
in density, a sigmoid shaped set of points is obtained.
Of importance to this discussion are two points. A minimum exposure
results in a noticeable density increase at a point that represents the
darkest shadow detail in the original scene. The point at which maximum
density is obtained that represents the highlight detail of the original
scene represents the second point. The arithmetic difference between these
two points is called the density or exposure range. Both negative films
and positive papers are similarly described by their response to exposure
ranges which result in predictable exposure/density ranges. This causal
relationship between exposure and density becomes crucial to an
understanding of the meaning of contrast as applied to photographic papers.
Unfortunately, there has developed some confusion between just what is
meant by "shadow" and "highlight" detail when comparisons are made between
negative and print characteristic curves. These two terms are descriptive
of the original scene. They correlate with the minimum and maximum density
points on the negative curve. They are incorrectly interchanged with the
minimum and maximum density points on the paper curve.
When a negative with a given range of densities is placed between the light
source and the paper in an enlarger, the thinnest part of the negative
allows the greatest amount of light to reach the paper. This produces the
maximum density in the print, which in fact, is the shadow detail of the
The case is similar with the densest portion of the negative when printed.
This results in the minimum density on the print, which is the highlight
detail of the original scene. Adams states that for the negative, one
should expose for shadow detail and develop for the highlights; whereas for
the print, one should expose for the highlights and develop for the shadows
The concept of "contrast" relies on an understanding of the role do
exposure and density ranges as they relate to both film and paper. When a
negative of known density range is matched with a paper whose exposure
range--or scale, as it is sometimes called--matches the negative's, the
resulting print will produce the entire range of tones (densities) present
in the negative. The term "contrast" refers actually to the density range
of the negative which can be printed on a paper of known exposure scale.
If a print is attempted from a negative whose density range is greater than
the exposure range of the paper, one must choose to print either for the
highlights and sacrifice the shadows, or the converse.
Several solutions to this unpleasant situation are possible. Expand the
exposure range of the paper either by choosing a lower contrast grade with
a longer exposure range, or by expanding the exposure scale of the
available printing paper. On the other hand, the negative can be re-shot
to match the exposure (contrast) range of the paper. On one likes to
consider the prospect of re-shooting, and some very contrasty negatives
from bygone ages cannot be redone. If the lowest contrast grade is
already being used, one is left with one remaining option: The Sterry
The success of the Sterry process is due to its oxidation of metallic
silver from proportionately higher areas of density than from lower ones.
This means that the upper densities of the print are lowered in value,
permitting additional exposure before reaching maximum density again.
Exposure is then made to obtain detail from the highlight portion of the
negative. An appropriate quantity of the Sterry solution is added to
suppress maximum print density. Eventually, the density range of the
negative can be matched to the exposure scale of the print paper, and a
"print of great brilliance and substance" obtained.
Negatives that exceed the exposure range of the paper being used can be
printed by simply varying the concentration and/or the time of the
bichromate presoak. In effect, it is possible to take a negative that
should be printed on a grade 1 and print it on a grade 2.
The actual procedure is a relatively simple one which requires simple
equipment and readily available chemicals (Wall & Jordan 1976). First
prepare a stock solution of the Sterry solution:
potassium bichromate 5 grams
ammonia (28%) 1 milliliter
distilled water to make 100 milliliters
The actual working solution is then prepared from the stock
Stock solution 6-20 milliliters
water to make 300 milliliters
Immerse a print exposed for negative highlight detail in a working solution
at 68 degrees for two minutes, agitating constantly. Place the print into
a water bath, rinsing for one minute. Remove the print and allow the
excess water to drip off. Place into the normal developer and process for
the usual time required for full development. Carry-over bichromate will
eventually contaminate the developing solution. It should be discarded
when a decrease in paper speed and maximum density are observed. Stop,
fix, and wash normally.
The effect of the Sterry process will also vary depending on the type of
printing paper used. Maximum effect has been obtained experimentally by
the author using bromide enlarging papers such as Agfa Brovira and Oriental
Seagull. A small effect has been obtained using Ilford Ilfobrome.
Resin-coated papers were least affected by the solution. Note, however,
that resin- coated papers retain less of the bichromate solution in the
emulsion than do the traditional fiber papers. It may be possible to
obtain a greater effect with a shorter rinse, or with no rinse at all.
The potential application of this procedure to the sometimes excessive
contrasts encountered in a photographer's routine printing is certainly
great enough to justify its use. It is ironic that some of these older
formulae are now working their way back into circulation. With more and
more emphasis on tine tuned printing, the Sterry process might just be here
1. Adams, Ansel. The Print. Morgan & Morgan, 1968.
2. Carroll BH, Higgins GC, James TH. Introduction to Photographic
Theory: The Silver Halide Process. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.
3. Focal Encyclopedia of photography, Volume III. Focal Press,
New York, 1965.
4. Horder A, ed. The Manual of Photography, 6th edition.
Chillon Book Company, New York, 1971.
6. Sowerly A. Dictionary of Photography, 18th edition.
Philosophical Society, New York, 1956.
7. Todd H and Zakia, Richard. Photographic Sensitivity. Morgan
& Morgan, New York, 1979.
8. Wall EJ, Jordan FI. (Revised by J Carroll). Photographic
Facts and Formulas. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 1976.
+ Jim Henderson, RBP +
+ 804 Center Street +
+ Oregon City, OR 97045-1951 +
+ email: firstname.lastname@example.org +
+ voice: (503) 655-6817 +
Note 27.05 -< PSA (Photo Society of America) address >-
> What is the address of the Photographic Society of America?
Here it is :
Photographic Society of America
3000 United Founders Blvd., Suite 103
Oklahoma City, OK 73112-3940
Note 27.06 -< Comprehensive Copyright Info Source >-
I found this to be useful, so I thought I'd pass along the info to the list.
The FAQ even includes a section on international copyright.
This FAQ is available for anonymous FTP from rtfm.mit.edu [126.96.36.199],
in directory /pub/usenet/news.answers/law/Copyright-FAQ, files part1 -
part6. If you do not have direct access by FTP, you can obtain a copy
via email: send a message to email@example.com with the following
lines in it:
from: Eric, firstname.lastname@example.org
Note 27.07 -< Photokina address in US >-
>Does anyone know where to obtain info about Photokina without having to
>contact the Photokina "organization in Germany?>
The contact for the Photokina in the USA nearest to Rochester is :
Hans J. Teetz
Cologne International Trade Fairs inc.
c/o German American Chambers of Commerce Inc.
40 West 57 St New York NY 10019-4092
Tel : 212-974-8836 or7
Fax : 212-974-8838
From: Johan Wesemael, Belgium -
> I'm interested in a general overview of what is required to photograph through
> a telescope. I have the camera, a buddy of mine has the telescope. Is there an
> easy and cheap way to do this or does it require a major investment in
> equipment and money. Right now it's just something I'd like to try and see
> what happens. (i suppose you could say it's just a "shot in the dark" )
How cheap and easy astrophotography is depends on what objects in the sky you
want to photograph. It also depends on what type of telescope and mount you
intend to use. First the mount that the telescope is on should be a mount that
has a clock drive attached so that it moves as the earth rotates. Now if you
are happy doing shot of the moon and some planetary work all you will need is
a telescope adapter and T-ring for your kind of camera. Now if you think you
want to photograph deep sky objects you also need equipment to guide the
telescope during the exposure to keep the stars in the field from trailing.
Deep sky work is by far the most difficult for a first time effort. The
exposures can range from 10 to 90 minuets in length and need to be guided the
whole time. A trip to your local libaray should find you some books on the
subject. Look in the area where you find books on astronomy. There a few
written on the subject.
From: "Michael E. Mitchell co230-0547"
Without more information regarding what you'll be photographing, the answer to
this question is that photographing through a telescope can either be very easy
or quite difficult. Anyway, here is my attempt at a general overview of
photographing through a telescope.
If you are photographing terrestrial subjects during the day, all you need is
relatively inexpensive camera to telescope adapter which can be purchased from
most of the telescope suppliers found in "Sky & Telescope" magazine.
If you are trying to photograph celestial subjects, obtaining satisfying
results could be a difficult and expensive task. Generally, telescope optics
are rather slow compared to camera lenses. Reflecting type telescopes
generally range from around f/4 to f/8. While folded optic and refractors
range from about f/8 to f/16. Given the dimness of the subjects and the motion
of the earth, attempts to photograph celestial objects without motion
compensation results in streaked images. To obtain good results you will need,
at a minimum, a telescope with what is known as a "polar axis mount" and "clock
drive". This equipment allows the telescope to rotate at the same speed and
along the same axis of motion as the stars. This set-up will work for
relatively short exposures.
Longer exposures requires equipment which allows you to make fine adjustments
to the tracking to compensate for errors in alignment and motor speed. Longer
exposures may also require the use of a "cold" camera or hypersensitized film
in order to overcome reciprocity failure. An even more expensive option
involves CCD cameras and computer interfaces.
The film of choice for serious astrophotographers is Kodak 2415 tech pan B&W
which has extended sensitivity in the red region of the spectrum. If you are
going to take relatively short exposures then almost any high speed B&W or
color film can provide satisfactory images.
I should mention that the moon is the easiest celestial object to photograph.
Even with relatively slow optics and ISO 200 or faster film, you should be able
to use shutter speeds which are fast enough to keep motion blur to a minimum. I
recommend a spot metering mode for the moon if your camera has this capability.
I hope you find the information helpful. Sky & Telescope magazine sells a
number of books on the subject you may (or may not) find interesting.
Tom Koger, email@example.com
Note 27.09 -< Image Usage Rights - A primer >-
Image Usage Rights - a short primer
>We are trying to find out how others in our market area, and other markets,
>are handling usage rights, multiple usage rights, and violation of usage rights
>in light of the new copyright laws. Are people spelling out the limitations in
>a shooting agreement? Are studios and photographers specifying certain values
>for image use at a trade show, national ad, catalog usage, one time usage,
>multiple usage etc. How are others setting and enforcing limits?
note: All references to "he" is for convenience. It can also be "she".
As a Commercial Photographer based in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I practice image
usage rights with every project negotiation that comes my way. Although an
uncomfortable topic for some Art Directors and Clients, it's an issue that
needs to be addressed during the initial phone call or meeting since, this is
the foundation of our business. My perception is that speaking about usage
rights is like speaking Chinese. A.D.'s and Clients are fearful to talk
about them, because they simply don't understand them and how a bottom line
figure is arrived at through them. We hold all the power here so, it's easy
to see why there's a certain degree of discomfort. With a good command of
this language it is in our best interest to add education along with price
Allow me to refer you to a book every photographer-for-publication should
have next to his business telephone. It's called Pricing Photography,
written by Michael Heron and David MacTavish. It's an Allworth Press
publication that is distributed by Amphoto. Before you price another job for
a commercial client, GET IT. It will give guidelines you need to negotiate
fair prices for estimating/pricing in the client's best interests and more
importantly your business' survival.
Educating your client about how your pricing is structured, and having
legitimate justification as to why, is the best way to arrive at an agreeable
price. It helps balance the power struggle, making them feel more
comfortable with you, building trust, and ultimately building a long term
relationship with them. Recently, I had a client who informed me that he had
never heard of usage rights prior to meeting me and that he simply bought all
the images from the photographer after the shoot was completed. This is
alarming. The negotiating process took over a month, of albeit firm words on
my behalf, before we settled on an agreeable price. Whether the client calls
me back or not, I have set a standard of my business practices and have
prepared the way for the next person.
This gave me a strong indicator as to how some photographers were making
money in this area and it has caused me considerable concern since, they're
not playing with the same set of rules I am/we are. i.e. Some photographers
shoot for a "consumer market" where images become a product that is sold like
any other commodity over the counter. This is fine if this is what they
choose to do for a living, I don't have a problem with this. We however, as
Commercial Photographers shoot for publications where what is sold is a
LICENSE to use the image(s) for a stated period of time. Apparently, these
consumer based persons have crossed this "boundary" by shooting commercial
jobs for publication and pricing/selling them as a consumer images. This is
destroying the legitimacy of pricing structures on our end of the industry
and it becomes a battle to negotiate under these conditions.
Commercial Photography pricing takes a good deal of research on your part in
order to arrive at an accurate and fair price. Some of the questions you
must ask are:
What is the image being used for?
How many images do you need?
Will they all be used for the same purpose?
How long do they need to use it for?
Where will it appear? How big?
Find out for yourself how much it costs your client to run an ad in that
space. i.e. Full page, half page, color, black & white. Will it be used on
an outdoor billboard?
These questions are IMPERATIVE in how one prices the job. If the client is
willing to spend $12,000 per year on an outdoor billboard, on an interstate
highway running through the heart of town and your image is appearing on it,
you should charge say 10-12% of that since, your image IS the billboard (for
one-year, exclusive usage). If they're willing to pay that much for that
type of ad space, they MUST be expecting handsome revenues in return for it.
Your image is what sells their product therefore you should keep control of
what rights are released and be properly compensated for your vision. If the
client asks for a "buyout" you should charge a substantially higher price.
In fact, discourage them from doing that since it probably won't be in their
best interest anyway. Ads change from year to year and the prospect of
losing ALL your rights to re-sell the image in the future is not attractive.
Heron and MacTavish's book provides great insight about this topic.
Usage rights violations shouldn't be a problem if everything is clearly
spelled out on your invoice face, the terms of agreement on the reverse side,
and as stated in a related delivery memo that is signed by the client and
returned to you. Terms should include a clause that states "usage rights
granted upon payment in full." In other words, you must be fully paid before
the image appears in any type of publication. If a violation arises, you
hold signed legal documents stating what agreements were made and you should
be paid compensation accordingly.
I dealt with a client recently who balked at the prices I presented and
threatened to have another photographer shoot images like mine, to get the
price he was looking for. Unless he owned the rights to that image, he
shouldn't even have thought of doing that. The term for this is copyright
infringement. It's against the law, and photographers should be weary of
A.D.'s or Clients who ask to have something shot, "that looks like this
photo." Sometimes we have to explain specific copyright laws to keep things
STUDENTS TAKE NOTES! Image usage rights are one of THE most important
aspects to your business' survival. Knowing how and what to ask your clients
is the key to quoting prices for your images or for a job estimate. If you
don't enforce these pricing concepts, nobody will do it for you. If we as a
photographic community don't enforce them, nobody else will. Educate your
fellow photographers even though they are your competition in the market
place. It's the only way that we can keep a standard of living for
In terms of pricing; "lowballing" just to get a job simply brings prices down
for everybody else. Say a client goes back to his office very satisfied with
the low price he got on this year's photography. When it comes time for him
to create the budget for next year's advertising photography he's going to
say to himself, "I don't need anywhere near as much as I thought to get this
photography done since, Cheap Photo, Inc. gave me such a great deal." So,
down comes his budgetary axe. Down went the possibility to make more money
next time, not just for you, but for all the photographers he deals with on
other projects. Forget about that new piece of equipment you really needed.
Rate stagnation causes virtually zero business GROWTH. This becomes
self-destructive and industry wide destructive.
When a client asks you "what's your Day-Rate," don't quote a figure unless
you know the answer to how the image(s) will be used. Say that you'll call
them back in a day or so to discuss the job. It's perfectly acceptable that
you need time to think about it. Tell them why so that they feel more
Joining your nearest chapter of the Advertising Photographers of America
(APA), or the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP), gives you
invaluable information, forms and guidelines about these issues and numerous
others. They are worth the price of membership alone. It keeps crucial
standardization of our industry's business practices and allows you to make
decisions with confidence. This in turn allows you to sound not only
convincing to your client but, genuine in your negtiations.
Santa Fe, New Mexico
info on membership to ASMP is available from RIT by e-mail by sending a note to:
firstname.lastname@example.org and saying INFO-ASMP$txt in the Subject: (not body) line of
Note 27.10 -< Photo Artisans Guild info >-
> what is the APGA and where are they located?
The address for the American Photographers Guild of Artisans is
212 Monroe, PO Box 699, Port Clinton, OH 43452 (419)732-3290
Note 27.11 -< Reversal Processing of Ilford Films >-
ILFORD TECHNICAL DATA - REVERSAL PROCESSING OF ILFORD NEGATIVE FILM
Reversal processing enables black and white transparencies to be produced
directly from ordinary negative materials exposed in camera the normal way.
The basic reversal process starts with development of the negative image. At
this point the used silver halide is not fixed out as in normal film
processing, but completely bleached away, using an acid bleach (see warning).
This leaves the remaining silver halide ready to be light-fogged and then
re-developed to form the final positive image.
Between the various stages of the process, washes are used to prevent
contamination of each new processing solution by the previous one. There is
only one critical stage in reversal processing; the first development. The
first negative image must "use up" just the right proportion of the emulsion,
so as to leave behind the correct amount of silver halide to give the desired
positive image at the end of the processing sequence.
The suitability of a negative film for reversal processing depends largely on
its inherent contrast. Little can be done to change the contrast appreciably by
changes in processing. So choose a film for reversal processing according to
the ultimate contrast required in the final positive image. For this reason
FP4/FP4 Plus is recommended for a moderately soft graduation image with
pleasing tones. PAN F gives somewhat higher contrast and pleasingly bright
positives. Particularly suitable for copy slides of photographs. We do not
recommend reversing high speed films, as they are likely to be too low in
REVERSAL PROCESSING PROCEDURES
These are two methods available to make transparencies from black and white
films. These are Kodak's T-Max 100 Direct Positive Film Developing Outfit and a
user prepared procedure. Each has its own unique quality, but work on the same
Black and white reversal processing involves six main stages:
1. First development - here the exposed image is developed to a negative.
2. Bleaching - here the negative image is completely bleached away.
3. Clearing - this is to clear away all traces of the powerful bleaching bath,
and the slight stain it leaves behind.
4. Re-exposure - this is a total fogging exposure to make the remaining silver
halide readily developable.
5. Second development - all the residual silver halide is developed fully, to
form the positive image.
6. Final fixing - this is an optional stage which removes any last traces of
silver halide that did not develop and leaves the image clean and fully
transparent in the clear parts.
7. Final washing and drying are quite normal.
T-MAX 100 DIRECT POSITIVE FILM DEVELOPING OUTFIT
When using this kit, we would recommend the following exposure modifications
coupled with the corresponding development times. The times are given for first
development and are a GUIDE ONLY. Modification may be needed depending on the
FILM EXPOSURE (STOPS) FIRST DEVELOPMENT TIME
PAN F +1 3 minutes
FP4 Plus +1 6 minutes
400 DELTA* +2 6 minutes
*May produce transparencies of low contrast.
USER PREPARED REVERSAL PROCESSING PROCEDURE - SOLUTIONS REQUIRED
A. Developer - Use either ILFORD Bromophen 1+1 with water or ILFORD Universal
Paper Developer diluted 1+15 with water. To one liter of the working strength
developer add Sodium Thiosulphate crystals (hypo) in the following proportion:
PAN F 8g
FP4/FP4 Plus 12g
B. Bleach - Mix the following solution: Potassium Dichromate 10g, water 1
liter; when dissolved add, slowly and carefully, 10ml of Sulfuric Acid
(concentrate). As you pour in the acid to the dichromate solution, much heat
will be generated, so pour in the acid very slowly and carefully. IF IN DOUBT,
ASK A QUALIFIED CHEMIST TO MIX THIS FOR YOU. Protect your skin and eyes by
using rubber gloves and protective eye wear.
* WARNING!! Concentrated Sulfuric Acid is DANGEROUS and HIGHLY CORROSIVE!! *
* ALWAYS pour the acid into the water, and NEVER the water into the acid! *
* KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN!!! CAUSES severe burns. May be fatal *
* if swallowed. DO NOT get into eyes or onto skin or clothing. Keep out of *
* the reach of children. In case of contact: *
* EXTERNAL: IMMEDIATELY flush with tap water, then water containing sodium *
* bicarbonate. INTERNAL: DO NOT give an emetic. Give whites of eggs beaten *
* with tap water, milk of magnesia or milk. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION AT ONCE! *
C. Clearing solution - Sodium Sulphite (anhy) 50g. Water to 1000ml.
D. Second Developer - It is most exonomical to re-use the first developer over
again. This is not ideal because of the added (but unwanted here) solvent.
Ideally you would used the same developer, but without the added Hypo.
E. Final Fix - Universal Fixer 1+9 or any other available fixer.
THE REVERSAL PROCESS SEQUENCE
1. First development 12 minutes
2. Wash 5 min., perferably running water
3. Bleach 5 minutes
4. Rinse 1 minute
5. Clear 2 minutes
6. Rinse 30 seconds
7. Second exposure 30-60 sec to white light
8. Second development 6 minutes
9. Rinse 30 seconds
10. Fix 1 minute
11. Final wash 10 minutes
this file was made available to this FAQ throught the courtesy of Ilford Corp.
Note 27.12 -< Bellows - basic instruction in making one >-
>Does anyone know how to make bellows? Is there a published set of plans?
I've never seen a published set of plans but I've made plenty of bellows in my
time. I'm currently using a 2x3 Century Graflex that I restored including a new
bellows. I used to do camera repair full-time some years back and I was fond of
restoring some of the grand old cameras.
Go to your local Tandy leather store and pick up a nice thin skiver. A skiver
(sp?) is a split sheep skin -- it's thin and pliable. Next get some black shoe
dye -- the liquid type, and a good quality contact cement. The last ingrediant
you'll need is a sheer fabric -- I go to the fabric store and buy some of the
synthetic stuff they use to back window curtins.
Use a pencil to draw the folds of the bellows onto the outside of the leather.
Use an existing bellows as a model. (Leave some excess leather to trim later.
Coat the inside of the leather with the contact cement and adhere the fabric to
the leather. This will provide the stiffness needed so that the bellows will
hold its shape. When the cement is dry -- use the shoe dye to throughly dye the
inside of the leather/fabric black. When the dye is dry you can start folding.
Use large paper clips to hold the corners together as you fold and crease.
Eventually the bellows will want to take its own shape.
Use the contact cement to seam the bellows together and finally dye the outside
whatever color you like -- I like red. With good care you'll have a bellows
that will last a lifetime.
Holler if you need more help.
St. Louis Community College
Note 27.13 -< Kodak's Ultra Fast and Ultra Grainy Recording Film >-
> I'd enjoy hearing any tips you'd like to share about Kodak's Recording Film.
> I've used it off and on for two or three years. The film's beautiful grain
> structure is unlike any other. When it's gone, it'll be a great, if
> little appreciated, loss.
I've never understood why the only grain that seems to be sought is "fine"
grain. Grain is, after all, a part of this medium, and in itself,
potentially a factor in the aesthetic vocabulary.
Recording film is IMHO the absolute film of choice for night photography.
Used with pyrocatechin compensating developer, it is possible to maintain
superb shadow content and at the same time, contain the light sources.
Since the film has no anti halation backing, there is halation but the
light sources remain distinct. It is the only film/developer combination
that I have really found adequate for night clubs, stage performances
without additional lighting, street dances, you name it -- any condition
which is basically a very low ambient light with extreme hot contrasts in
the million to one plus range.
Typically, I rate the film at 800 ISO (the data recommended for the film,
IMHO, explains why no one uses it -- everybody tried it once, found it ugly
and hated it, and never tried it again!). I usually take an incident
reading in a generalized area lit by whatever ambient light is there,
deliberately excluding the highlight areas (which is where everyone else
seems to want to meter). In a typical Seattle street scene, this would
give me about 1/15 - 1/30 at f/2.8 - 4. This means, if it is a band on
stage playing under changing lights, I would pretty much ignore the changes
and go for the shadow illumination for my exposure. This certainly
simplifies the decisions I have to make.
The developer is the typical formula from Windisch, available in many
Water ......... 100ml
Pyrocatechin... 8 g.
Sodium Sulphite 1.25 g.
10 percent caustic soda
(though it is generally not recommended to use household chemicals in such
formulas, I've had absolutely consistent results for years with Red Devil Lye).
Solution A will keep for quite a long time in stoppered dark bottles;
Solution B is best renewed every week or so.
For use, take 12 parts solution A, 7 parts B, 500 parts water.
Be aware that pyrocatechin is listed as a probable carcinogen, so gloves
are in order, as are precautions against breathing the dust when mixing.
Pyrocatechin tans the emulsion, and toughens it. The film will turn into a
corkscrew when it dries. Reverse rolling it for a day or so takes care of
This will produce a fair amount of fog (BROWN FOG, BROWN IMAGE). To
minimize this, I develop at 65 degrees fahrenheit, using a stainless steel
tank with one fewer reel than the tank is designed for. I agitate constantly
for 10 minutes. The theory here is that the fog will develop at the same
rate regardless, so by accellerating the highlight development through
constant agitation, my image to fog ratio is improved. Be sure, though,
that the air is removed, because oxygenating the solution will destroy any
gains you may obtain using this method.
Printing these images works best on graded papers, because they are so
brown that they act as a graduated low contrast filter on MG emulsions.
That is, the shadows may appear normal or even contrasty; the highlights
become progressively flatter the brighter they ought to be. This can
sometimes be used to advantage in extreme situations, but normally just
looks a bit strange.
I used this method for many years as a regular part of my work as a travel
photographer for _Sunset_ magazine here on the West coast. More of my
night images seemed to get into print than just about anyone else's.
This regime is great for night, but produces rather uninteresting images
under normal conditions.
Oh yes.... Back in the seventies, I used to develop it in Rodinal for 15 -
20 minutes at 50:1, I think. The resultant grain, with the image enlarged
directly on lith film, eliminated the need for halftone screens when making
silkscreen prints and photo-etchings.
Probably ought to end this here. But, I also have worked out information
for this film with MCM100, a true paraphenylinediamine fine-grain
developer. The grain is not fine, but it's verrrry Beauuuutiful! Well
worth the ISO 400 required. Much nicer than tri-x. Twenty minutes ought
to do it, but I don't have my notes handy. Write if interested. Have to
check my files. Now that I have got it down, the film goes out of print.
If it were possible to raise a hue and cry and save this film from
perdition, I'd sure like to do it. ALL of my favorite films seem to be
destined for doom.... I loved Royal X pan, Super XX.
Larry Bullis, email@example.com
Shoreline Community College
=========================== end of section 27 ==========================
by the way ... if you want to subscribe to the PhotoForum list for photo and
imaging educators, students and others interested in the topics that might be
discussed by such a group you can do so by sending mail to:
with this text in the BODY of the mail:
subscribe photoforum your-name-here
where it says your-name-here substitute your real name and then send message.
Also, there are a number of articles available from this server. Get to them
at the following URL: http://www.rit.edu/~andpph/articles.html
For info on a global databank of schools offering photography instruction go
FTP: You can also obtain most of these files also by Anonymous FTP from
vmsftp.rit.edu under pub/ritphoto/photoforum
WWW: You can access the PhotoForum Home Page on the WWW at the this address: