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    FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions                  Section 31
          Please check "root" (faq$txt) file for acknowledgements. 
    This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated 
    with recurring  questions asked by photographers.   If you would like to 
    add a tidbit of knowledge to  this list just send it to   ANDPPH@rit.edu 
    who will gladly add it to this collection. For complete table of content
    send message to   ritphoto@rit.edu   with  FAQ$txt  in the Subject: line
                    These files are available in SECTIONS. 
             This is Section 31 and its contents are listed below.
      31.1   -< Porter's Camera Store and Catalogue info >-
      31.2   -< Light/Dark and Sound Sync w/delay & intervalometer >-
      31.3   -< Kodak B&W Sheet Film notch codes >-
      31.4   -< US Photography Related Magazines List >-
      31.5   -< X-Ray machines at airports >-
      31.6   -< Testing Shutters the SIMPLE way >- 
      31.7   -< Copying Artwork with Tungsten Lights discussion >- 
      31.8   -< What is a TLR in reference to a camera? >-
      31.9   -< Another note on 2nd curtain sync >-
      31.10  -< Photo Related URLS - HUGE list >- 
Note 31.1      -< Porter's Camera Store and Catalogue info >-
    I order from  Porter's  frequently and have always been satisfied 
    with their service. They sell cameras, lenses, developing & printing
    supplies, tripods, cases, etc. and all kinds of interesting gadgets.
    Porter's Camera Store, Inc., Box 628, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613-0628
    Warehouse Outlet Store: 323 Viking Road, Cedar Falls, Iowa
    Porters advertises a free catalog (it's over 100 pages) that you can
    receive by calling 1-800-553-2001.
    From: Joyce Sandy, JSANDY@KIOWA.ASTATE.EDU,  College of Education
    Arkansas State University, P.O. Box 940, St. University, AR 72467  
    PHONE: 501-972-3057 FAX:  501-972-3828
Note 31.2   -< Light/Dark and Sound Sync w/delay & intervalometer >-
     Schematic of  Light/Dark and Sound activated synchronizer 
     with adjustable delay (analog) and Intervalometer setting
     (c) A.Davidhazy * non-commercial use and distribution ok!
|       | |          |    |   |         |       |            |
|       | |   %      |    |   |         |       |            |
|       | +-> % 1M   |    |   |         |       |            |
|       |     |     _|____|___|__       # 22K   # 10K or so  |
|   22K #     +----|1 4  14  10  |      |       |            |
|       |     |    |          12 |---.  |       |            |
|       |     +----|2            |   |  |       |            V
|  100K |     |    |          13 |---'-----+----'        + 12 volts
|    .--+---- | ---|6            |      |  |   (pack of 8 1.5 volt batteries)
|    |  |     |    |           8 |--+---'  |                  
|  .>%  =.001 |    |    556      |  = .01  |                  
|  | %  |     |    |           5 |--+----- | -----+           
|  |    |     |    |             |         |      |  1N4004    
|  |----|     |    |           9 |-------------+-------+--|>-+--> to relay
|  |    |     |    |             |         |   |  |    |     |
|  |    |     |+   |_3____7___11_|         |   #  # 1K |     -
|  |    |10uf =      |    |    |      10uf =   |  |    |     ^ 1n4004
|  |    |     |  .01 =    |    = .01       |   0  0 led|     |
|  |    *     |      |    |    |           |   |  |    |     |
|  |   /      |------+----*----+---------------+--+----------+--> to relay
|  |    *                 |                |   2  1    |
|  |    | repeat switch   *                |  timers   |
|  |    |                /  power switch   |indicators |
|  |    V                 *                |           V
|  |    A                 |                |         to A 
|  |              GND (- on 12v battery)   |
|  |                         .____________ | ____.
|  |                  .______|_________.   |     |
-- | -----------------|*     *     .*  |   |     |    FPT100 or equiv
   |                  |   ________/    |   |      \|  phototransistor
   |__________________|*-'   *      *------'      /|       or
                      |______|______|__|         |    microphone input
       DPDT SWITCH       10K +-###--+            |
                   DARK <---   ---> LIGHT/SOUND
Andrew Davidhazy, at RIT's Imaging and Photo Tech Dept, andpph@rit.edu 
Note 31.3           -< Kodak B&W Sheet Film notch codes >-
   Code Notches and ISO speeds for KODAK Black and White sheet films. 
           All on Estar Thick Base unless otherwise specified.
                                                          Daylight   Tungsten
                                                             ISO       ISO
                                 __________  __    _____
Commercial 6127, 4127                      \/  |__|         20/14      8/10
(not on Esatr Thick base)
                                 ______  _  ___  _  ____
Contrast Process Pan 4155              \/ \/   \/ \/       100/21     80/20
                                 ______  _  ___    _____
Contrast Process Ortho 4154            \/ \/   |__|        100/21     50/18
                                 ____________  _     ___
Ektapan 4162                                 \/ |___|      100/22    100/22
                                 _______________     ___
Fine Grain Positive 7302                        |___|       40/17     10/11
(not on Estar Thick base)
Kodalith Ortho 2556, Type 3           not notched           10/15      6/9
(Estar base)
                                  _______  _  ___  _____
Kodalith Pan 2568                        \/ \/   \/         40/17     36/16
(Estar base)
                                  ____  _  _  ___     __
Plus-X Pan Professional 4147          \/ \/ \/   |___|     125/22    125/22
                                  _________  _  _  _____
Tri-X Pan Professional 4164                \/ \/ \/        320/26    320/26
                                  ____________  _  _____
Super-XX Pan 4142                             \/ \/        200/24    200/24
                                  __  _  ____    _    __
Tri-X Ortho 4163                    \/ \/    \__/ \__/     320/26    200/24
                                  ___  _  _  ___     ___
Royal-X Pan 4166                     \/ \/ \/   |___|     1250/32   1250/32
                                  ____________  ___  ___
Royal Pan 4141                                \/   \/      400/27    400/27
                                  _____  ________  _____
T-Max 100 Professional 5052            \/        \/        100/21    100/21
(not on Estar Thick base)
                                  _______  .  _     ____
T-Max 400 Professional 5053              \/ \/ |___|       400/27    400/27
(not on Estar Thick base)
                                  __  ____  _    _    __
Professional Copy 4125              \/    \/ \__/ \__/      25/15     12/12
                                  __  __________  __  __
Pan Masking Film 4570               \/          \/  \/
(not on Estar Thick base)
                                  _  _  _    ____    ___
Matrix Film 4150                   \/ \/ \__/    \__/
                                  __  ____  ____  ______
Pan Matrix 4149                     \/    \/    \/ 
                                  ____  _    _    ______
Separation Negative 4131, Type 1      \/ \__/ \__/
(not on Estar Thick base)
                                  _______    __    _____
Separation Negative 4133, Type 2         \__/  \__/
(not on Estar Thick base)
                             ____  ___  ___  ___     ___
High Speed Infrared 4143         \/   \/   \/   |___|
-when notches are at the right side of the top edge the emulsion is facing you-
andy, andpph@rit.edu
Note 31.4        -< US Photography Related Magazines List >-
US Photographic Magazines & Newsletters - list compiled by  Lance W. Bledsoe 
lwb@AvalonCorp.com, 30 Jun 1995 
    1633 Broadway
    New York,  New York 10029
    A bi-monthly, glossy magazine devoted to the art of photography.
    20 East 23rd Street
    New York, New York 10010
    A quarterly magazine dedicated to fine art photography.
    10 East 39th Street
    New York, New York 10016
    A monthly magazine offering art director's views on photography and
    419 Park Avenue South
    New York, New York 10016
    A monthly newsletter issued to members which reports on trends and
    business pertinent to the field of magazine photography.
    PTN Publishing Co.
    445 Broad Hollow Road
    Melville, NY 11747
    Monthly - geared to commercial/professional photographers
    309 Fifth Avenue,
    New York, New York 10016
    A paper products trade publication.
    Published by AG Editions
    New York City.
    A quarterly tipsheet for nature and stock photographers.
    Published by TIB
    Profiles Image Bank photographers and their work. Also covered are such
    topics as news, electronic imaging, and fine art photography.
    49 East 21st Street
    New York, New York 10010
    A quarterly magazine, produced by PHOTO/DESIGN MAGAZINE, which showcases
    the work of stock photographers.
    (Loupe is a supplement to Photo District News who folded the 
    Photo Design book and incorporated that feature in the Newspaper.)
    -- Gary Gladstone, gary@panix.com
    3200 Croasdaile Drive
    Suite 306,
    Durham, North Carolina 27705
    A monthly magazine produced by the National Press Photographer's
    Association for still and television news.
    Suite 800
    16000 Ventura Boulevard
    Encino, California 91436
    A monthly magazine devoted to the techniques and needs of outdoor
    8490 Sunset Boulevard
    Los Angeles, California 90069
    A monthly magazine covering all aspects of photography and geared toward
    all levels of expertise.
    49 East 21st Street
    New York, New York 10010
    A monthly publication covering photography as used in the design and
    advertising fields. (This magazine may be out of production. -- LWB)
    49 East 21st Street
    New York, New York 10010
    The monthly trade magazine of photography which takes it name from the
    area of New York City in which it is located.
    Published by Serbin Communications
    511 Olive Street
    Santa Barbara, CA  93101
    (805) 963-0439
    Features upcoming photographers & students as well as interviews
    with established professionals.  -- Steven Lunetta, a063@amug.org
    PO. Box 20351
    Park West Station
    New York, New York 10025
    A bi-monthly guide to photographic exhibitions and galleries. Private
    dealers, auctions, and photographic books are also covered.
    PhotoSource International
    Dept. H
    Pine Lake Farm
    Osceola, WI  54020-5602
    (715) 248-3800
    Internet:  w.hopkins@genie.geis.com
    A monthly newsletter consisting of 8 tightly-knit pages designed to keep the
    busy stock photographer up-to-speed on the changes in this evolving field.
    Free sample issue available. -- Bill Hopkins, w.hopkins@genie.geis.com
    P.O. Box 38149
    Dallas, TX 75238
    Shots is one place you can see your work in print, as well as the
    work of others. No ads, just images and a bit of writing. Membership is
    $20.00 per year and a best bet if you love to see photographs.
    -- Steven Lunetta, a063@amug.org
    1633 Broadway
    New York, New York 10029
    The world's largest monthly publication devoted to photography and covers
    new equipment, pro advice, contests, and more.
    1312 Lincoln Boulevard
    Santa Monica, California 90406
    (310) 451-8506
    A monthly magazine devoted to the technical aspects of photography and
    includes equipment reviews and coverage of new products.
    Box 1209
    Titusville, Florida 32781
    A monthly magazine featuring perhaps the most extensive equipment and
    product advertising in the photo community, complimented by news,
    features, and reviews.
    Box 1209
    Titusville, Florida 32781
    A new monthly photo magazine has just premiered (in the USA anyway).  
    It is called _Shutterbug's Outdoor & Nature Photography_.  Using the 
    same size and format of _Shutterbug_ magazine, it concentrates on the 
    same outdoor themes as Outdoor Photographer (though not as erudite in 
    tone) and the review style is similar to Shutterbug.  Premier issue 
    covers tripod selection, new color films, backpacks, trip planning, 
    filter usage, etc. -- John McCormack, John_McCormack@nbs.gov
    by Jim Pickerell
    110 Frederick Avenue
    Rockville, Maryland 20850
    A quarterly newsletter for stock photographers.
    2774 Harkness St.
    Sacramento, CA 95818
    (916) 441-2557
    A bi-monthly for View Camera enthusists.
    Published by Zone VI Studios/Fred Picker
    Newfane, VT  05345-0219
    Concise and practicle information on photography, art and life.
    They make the most bitchen field camera ever. If you don't use their
    meters, you aren't getting good exposures. [I am not affiliated with
    them-just love their stuff.] -- Steven Lunetta, a063@amug.org
Note 31.5         -< X-Ray machines at airports >-
       Some logic surrounding X-ray inspections of films
Yesterday I saw a science magazine on public television wich, among other
topics, had a report on airport x-ray machines. It was quite short, but with
some math and commom sense I was able to deduce the following.
_MODERN_ airport x-ray machines use such low radiation doses, that you would
have to pass something through them 1000 (one thousand) times to equal the
(average) annual "natural" radiation background. "Natural" in this case
includes the radiation found in houses due to the decay of radioactive isotopes
found in the building-material.
Assuming (for simplicity) a year had 10,000 hours (actually its less than
8,800) this would mean that one pass through a _MODERN_ x-ray machine (stressed
here for the last time ... I _know_ that there are old ones with higher doses
out there) would correspond to a ten hour normal storage for a film (at
At an altitude of 10km (33,000 for "non-metricists") --- quite a normal
cruising altitude for airplanes --- the radiation intensity is increased a
hundredfold compared to sea-level. Repeating the calculation from above leads
to the equivalent of one pass through the x-ray machine every six (!!) minutes
if you are travelling at this height. In other words; if you're taking a long
distance flight, your films will get the equivalent of TEN (10 !!) passes
through the airports x-ray for EVERY HOUR of the flight.
So I wouldn't blame the airport security for exessive fogging of film.
Lead-shielded bags probably aren't much of a help either, since the atmospheres
radiation stopping capability is equivalent to a three foot thick lead shield,
and you've already got three fourths (3/4) of the atmosphere below you at 10km
height. Who would pay the air fare for a hundred (hundreds of ???) pounds of
lead just to shield her or his films ?!?
Klaus Bagschik, Radioastronomisches Institut der Universit"at,
Auf dem H"ugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany 
e-mail: kbagschi@astro.uni-bonn.de
Tel.:   +49-228-73-5658   -3643        Fax:     +49-228-73-3672
Note 31.6          -< Testing Shutters the SIMPLE way >- 
>does anyone know of a simple way to test the times a shutter delivers?
Here's an approach which I have used successfully for years; it requires a 
little bit of electronics and a little bit of programming.
Wire a light-sensitive transistor to the push-button input of an Apple  II,
then program an assembly-language routine to loop and count as long  as the
transistor sees light. An Applesoft routine can call the machine-language
routine, and translate the loop count into actual opening times.
Naturally I don't have the thing here with me and can't tell you what 
resistors etc. I used, but the response of the system extends to measure flash
duration - 1/10,000 or better. 
I used a similar circuit to make an enlarging timer, which ran entirely  in
Applesoft; this requires a circuit to control 110v AC from 5v DC TTL. A piece
of Rubylith over the B&W tv makes a darkroom monitor.
Dan Johnston, djohnsto@library.berkeley.edu
If you have an old 33-1/3 record player, put a small **wheat-grain**  light
bulb on the center and another anyplace on the rim.  Wire them up to a
battery.  Place on the floor in any dark room.  Place camera on a tripod,
looking down, over the center.  Turn on player.  Expose test roll at different
shutter speeds.  develop and print.  Measure the  ***angle*** of the arc. 
Convert to fraction of a second.  (What shutter speed makes a complete
Fred,  "Dr. Fred J. Gunther"
>>>>> On 19 Jul 1995 11:26:03 -0400 (EDT), SINCLAIR@ABRSLE.AGR.CA said:
> There is also an enlarging timer on the market that may also be
> used for checking shutter speeds  (both fp and leaf). The lens or camera 
> Is placed over the sensor while light from the enlarger illuminates
> the *whole* A friend has one and uses it regularly for this purpose.
there is a hole in the housing of the timer.
> An investment in a new timer may allow you to do both (tho' not at the 
> same time) I will inquire (enquire ?) of the make and model and post to
> the list later.
I believe it's the MetroLux II timer you're talking about (because I just
got one). I tried doing a shutter test with just my enlarger light, but it
wasn't bright enough for the sensor to register. I don't really plan on
doing much shutter testing (if any), but it did come along with the rest of
the package (note that the cost of the Calumet meter is something less than
1/4 of the timer cost).
Pete,  bergstro@src.honeywell.com (Pete Bergstrom)
Calumet sells (sold?) a relatively inexpensive shutter speed checker that
operates exactly as the phototransistror + oscillator + counter + display 
circuit I described in an earlier post. When we bought one for our school
the price was in the $75 range. It may be more practical to buy something
like this preassembled  and tested than to start from scratch.  Often the 
attraction of home-built  devices is not so much the cost savings but the
pleasure of making something. Calumet's phone number is 800-CALUMET
andy, andpph@rit.edu
Depending on what is meant by "simple" there are two systems that are usually
referred to when one considers testing exposure times "ala cheap". The first
is the turntable system which is useful for speeds up to about 1/60 second or
so. It has the disadvantages mentioned in several earlier posts. For shorter
exposure times one needs a standard with a shorter time base. Television sets
can be used as shutter testing devices but only for the shorter exposure times
starting with about 1/30 second although with a bit of "logic" one can probably
make a fairly good estimate of even 1/15 of a second as long as shutter is not
off by more than 25% or so.
The best type TV to use is a B&W one. It should be tuned to a "clear" channel
where you don't get noise just a plain screen. The TV sets lay down 15,750
lines on the screen (NTSC standard) in one second. It does it in 1/60 second
"fields" or screenfulls each consisting of 262.5 lines. They are laid down
going from top to bottom.
Basically the idea is that if you make an exposure at 1/1000 second you would
count about 16 lines in a vertical direction. If you use a leaf shutter the
exposed "band" made up of however number of lines the set was able to scan onto
the TV faceplate will be horizontal and if you use a FP shutter then the band
will have a tilt to it depending on the speed at which the curtains are moving
and how close the camera is to the screen. (Assumption is made that the
camera's shutter is made to travel perpendicular to the motion of the TV
scannning action).
You can also roughly estimate the width of the FP shutter slit and appreciate
the fact that its width increases as the shutter moves from one side of the
gate to the other.
BTW ... for the turntable test a variation is to use photo paper placed on the
turntable and have the light project through the lens onto the whirling paper.
You can retrieve an article about this by sending e-mail to: ritphoto@rit.edu 
placing in the Subject: line this: article_shutter_testing$txt  and SEND in
andy  o o  0 0 o   o  Andrew Davidhazy, at RIT's Imaging and Photo Tech Dept
       \/\/\/\/\/\/   andpph@rit.edu              High Speed Photography Lab
________|        |__________________________________________________________
Hmmm, ... this probably isn't quite what you had in mind, but maybe you
can adapt it for your needs.
        Some years ago I wanted to determine the delay I needed to take
pictures of soap bubbles in "mid-pop" --- the contraption being rather
fragile I didn't dare to take it out of the house (I had built it at
home). The only thing that came to my mind as a useful "time standard"
was the turntable of my record player ...
What I did was to tape a bright marker onto the turntable which I set
at 45 rpm and have the contraption release two flashes while taking a
picture of the table; being able to measure the angular separation of
the two marker images to one degree I achieved an accuracy of roughly
1/270 sec --- which won't be enough for you ...
        What _YOU_ could do would be to buy a synchronous motor that
rotates at the line-frequency --- 60 cps in the US ((or an integer
part thereof ?!? ... depends on motor)),  attach a black cardboard
disk firmly to the motors axle and punch a small hole into the disk
close to its circumference (for best results). Now put a (very ?!?)
bright light underneath the disk and turn the motor on; the disk
-- and with it the brightly lit hole -- now rotates 60 times a second.
If you take a picture of the disk and are able to measure the angular
extent of the streak caused by the hole to only five degrees, you can
obtain an accuracy of 1/4320 sec ... this would mean 25% uncertainty
at 1/1000 sec shutter speed ...
        DRAWBACKS:  -only usable for speeds faster than 1/60 sec.
                     (if slower use turntable (if if still exists))
                    -no good for focal plane shutters !!
                    -need to wait for developed film
(( If the motor only turns with 30 rps or 20 rps the other figures
are reduced accordingly ))
Side view:
                        camera  ||
                                                 stray-light shield
=================               |               =========== 
                ----------------|------------ ---  <-- Disk
                                |             \
                            ---------          \______Hole
                   ^ ^ ^    | MOTOR |   ^ ^ ^
                   | | |    ---------   | | |
                   (LIGHT)              (LIGHT)
If this should be useless, I hope it was at least an inspiration  =8-)
Klaus Bagschik, Radioastronomisches Institut der Universit"at,
Auf dem H"ugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany 
e-mail: kbagschi@astro.uni-bonn.de
Tel.:   +49-228-73-5658   -3643        Fax:     +49-228-73-3672
If you can find one, such a device can be easily constructed from an old record
turntable. Assuming you can trust the rotation speed of the turntable, then all
you need to do is paint an old LP with black and white index markings. The bad
news is that such a device requires you to expose a roll of film to actually do
the test. Expose with flash.
Joe Angert, St. Louis Community College
Note 31.7   -< Copying Artwork with Tungsten Lights discussion >- 
>Which chrome film would you recomend for the most accurate representation for
>the purpose of photographing an artists portfolio. I will be photographing with
>lights and due to the bulbs I know I will have to use tungsten slide film. The
>plans are to use a camera fixed to a location with a zoom so I can switch art
>sizes without having to move the camera/lights back and fourth. On both sides
>of the camera it is planned to place two diffused light sources (unbrella &
>pannel) at 45 deg. to the art. The art will be hanging on a wall with a matt
>black background. Any helpful hints?
Ektachrome EPT. The copy setup you are using may give you problems with your
fixed camera/lights. Ideally use electronic flash for copies of artworks as
this will give you the most neutral rendition. Use polarising filters on the
flash units (tungsten lights will melt them) and on the camera. Cross polarise
the light to the point where, with the modelling lights turned on, you see a
shiny object placed on the surface of the artwork (e.g. a coin) turn black
when you rotate the camera's polar filter. Umbrellas will increase the
posibility of reflection. Reflections will kill the colour in the original and
you will be amazed at the  colour saturation of copies done with polarised
light. Transparency film gives the best possible colour range and saturation
James McArdle , Photography Lecturer, Latrobe University, Bendigo
Your setup should work fine with a tungsten balanced film. I have been using
Kodak's 64T and been quite happy with the results. I prefer it to the faster
stuff, due to its finer grain and better reciprocity characteristics. For
similar reasons, I would avoid using a conversion filter with daylight film,
unless you can get fairly short exposures (1/8 or less) at about F/8 (for flat
Be sure to take your reading from a grey card, bracket, and make notes. If you
have time, you can shoot a test roll of a few subjects and base a full run on
how it turns out. Depending on the materials of the portfolio, you might
consider a polarizer. Examine the subjects through it while rotating it to see
if it has any effect.
An alternative is Kodachrome 40. It has a slightly different look to it, but
might be what you like. It is nominally balanced for 3400 degrees, rather than
the more common 3200, but I have exposed it with normal tungsten lights and no
filter for all but the most critical subjects.  It has the disadvantages of
being more expensive, a bit harder to find, and taking longer to process, since
it must be sent to a Kodak lab.
Nathan Prichard, Kentucky Historical Society, npric1@ukcc.uky.edu
I like Ektachrome 50 Professional (Tungsten) film although if you can live with
the inconvenience of getting Kodachrome processed Kodackrome 40 is a very good
film IMHO too. If _all fails_ and you can not get Tungsten film you can come
fairly close to appropriate color reporduction if you use Daylight film and
place a Tungsten to Daylight conversion filter over the lens. This costs you
about two stops of speed. The filter is a 80A if your bulbs have a color
temperature of 3200 degrees K or an 80B if they are of 3400K quality. The
former are generally simply high wattage household lamps while the latter 
are specially made photo lamps with generally a rather short operating life.
Althgouh many textbooks recommend lighting at 45 degrees I find this a bit
steep and prefer to light material at more like 30 - 35 degrees with each of 
the lights aimed at the opposite edge of the work that the lamps are on. This
makes for more even lighting in my opinion. Another scheme, described in
Kodak's booklet on Copying and Duplicating, is to aim the lights at the side 
of the original nearest each of the lamp and the lamps aimed at 45 degrees to 
the surface.
The black matt background is a good idea. It will help keep flare down and
contrast up. Use of a polarizer on camera was suggested earlier and typically
needed to control surface reflections somewhat. Also suggested earlier, use of
polarizers on both lights and camera is the only way to extinguish most
reflections (if you really want to do that). Using polarizers will call for
longer times or larger apertures than if you did not use one. Use of of
polarizers over both lights and camera lens makes the problem even worse.
Although since you are using a tripod you should have no real problem dealing
with this.
Andy, andpph@rit.edu
Note 31.8       -< What is a TLR in reference to a camera? >-
>I use a 35 mm camera but am interested in understanding cameras with different
>design features. I have seen references to "TLR" cameras with implications
>that they are different than, say , "TTL" cameras. Would anyone be willing to 
>provide an explanation of the difference.
The abbreviation TLR stands for "Twin Lens Reflex".  This camera has two
lenses, one for viewing, which is reflected upward onto the groundglass 
or into a prism, and the bottom lens which is fixed in place, in most
cameras, that take the pic.  The advantage of a TLR over and SLR is that
the mirror is stationary, so there is no mirror slap or blackout when the
picture is taken.
Examples of TLR cameras include Rolleicord and Rolleiflex, the Minolta
Autocord, the Mimaya TLR's, which have interchangeable lenses unlike the
others, and the old Yashica-Mats.  Most of them take 120 size film, so
they are considered MF, or medium format, cameras.
I have an older Rolleicord, and I absolutely love it.
John Thompson  Canton, Ohio
A "TLR" means Twin Lens Reflex. The design consists basically of two cameras
stacked on top of each other with the top one used for viewing and composition
and focusing through a fixed aperture lens. The viewing lens and the taking
lens are matched in focal length and focusing mechanism so as you focus the
image projected on the groundglass of the top one you automatically bring the
bottom into focus as well. Since bottom lens is equipped with a leaf shutter
the camera syncs with electronic flash at all speeds. 
TLR's were (are?) by far the preferred machine for wedding photographs and many
photographers owe their livelihood to one of these cameras.
TLR's come (came?) in most varieties of film formats but the most common is the
2 1/4 film delivering square format pictures. There is a bit of a parallax
problem considering the slight separation between viewing and taking lens but
this can be adjusted for or sort of predicted with cropping marks in the
viewfinder or moving masks in the viewfinder that adjust as the lens board is
racked out.
The most famous example of the TLR is the Rolleiflex and a prolific user of
this camera was Fritz Henle who published several "Guide to Rollei Photography"
books. The most famous 4x5 TLRs are by far the ones made by Peter Gowland right
here in the USA! (I think ... and if so one of the very few remaining
professional camera manufacturing operations in the US with Hulcher and Globus
being a couple more). BTW, Peter Gowland is a prolific "cheesecake" or pin-up
girl photographer. (I don't think it is PC to say this but he has made a good
living at glamour and "boudoir" photography for many years).
Another workhorse is the Mamiya C-  series like the C-3, C-33, C-330 etc. This
one system became famous partly because it allowed for interchangeability of
lenses. You had actually to "interchange" two lenses at a time but the camera
survived many years until it was just recently discontinued. The Rolleiflex was
discontinued some years back but a top-notch model of the camera has been
recently reintroduced.
There was at least one 35mm model made many moons ago ... the Bolsey 35mm TLR.  
well, the story of the TLR is much too large to be told in a single post and
you may have noticed some of my comments left the door wide open for follow-ups
and additional commentary or criticism. 
andy, andpph@rit.edu
How about this: TTL => Through The Lens metering. This metering concept 
illustrates that the camera's metering is based on the same light that 
the film will see. TLR => Twin Lens Reflex, as opposed to SLR. This means 
that the camera has two lenses, one for viewing the image, and the other 
in which the film actually sits behind. I suppose that TLR camera can 
utilize metering through the upper lens, while the actual picture taking 
is based on the lower lens. This eliminates any potential vibrational 
noise that may be generated from flipping of a mirror commonly used in 
SLR cameras.
If I am wrong about any of the above, then I must be human. Take care.
TLR stands for Twin Lens Reflex.  You probably have seen them.  It's a
medium format camera that utilized a lower lens for the shutter, while the
upper lens is for the viewfinder.
Steve, srobert@gulf.net
Ok thats an easy one TTL is Thru the Lens
TLR is Twin Lens Reflex
SLR is Single Lens Reflex.
I own a TLR and Love it, it's quiet and Takes Gorgeous Shots. Problems
with it are that you are viewing thru a lens OTHER than the Taking lens
Forget to take the cap off the Taking lens and you get Blank Photo's.
Also Parrallax Problems come up when doing Closeups.
Used TLR's abound and are IMO a PERFECT way to try Medium Format since
they are readily available and fairly inexpensive. You can go from the 
Bottom of the Barrel Russian Lubitel which I've seen advertised in 
Shutterbug for as little as $25 to Rolleiflex's for $500 or more.
The only TLR I know of that has Changeable Lenses is the Mamiya C-330
I suggest a good Rolleicord or Minolta Autocord or a Yashicamat 124g
Tho My TLR is a LOW end Yashica "D" that I paid $60 for and which takes
pix as crisp as my Mamiya 645
From: midgard@nycmetro.com
Note 31.9         -< Another note on 2nd curtain sync >-
>what is the effect of using a 2nd curtain sync flash? I think i understand 
>how it works mechanicaly, but I don't know what kink of effect it is used 
>for or when it is used.
When there is little or no ambient light present it makes not much
difference which scheme you use, conventional "X" sync or 2nd curtain
sync (more properly referred to as "tailflash synchronization" because
when applied with leaf shutters since these do not have a second curtain 
the term is inaccurate). The only difference will be that if you happen 
to be using a long exposure time the picture will obviously not be
taken at the time you trip the shutter but at some later time, just
before the shutter closes.
OTOH, if there is a significant amount of ambient light, this will
cause "ghosting" of the moving subject (basically the moving subject
appears blurred) attached to a sharply rendered image of the subject
caused by the short duration of the flash relative to the long
exposure time given by the shutter.
Under this condition, if the flash goes off immediately upon the
shutter opening, the moving subject's blurred image will recorded
subsequent to the flash going off and thus will appear to precede the
sharp image (relative to the apparent subject motion) in the final
print or transparency. This happens with conventional X sync or 1st 
curtain sync.
The blured image can be used to suggest motion. In the above instance,
however, the subject will appear to be moving backwards since our
society's artistic  convention is that for an illustration to suggest
that the subject is moving in a given direction it must have the blur
behind it, showing up in that side of it from which it is _coming_ and
NOT on that side towards which it is _going_.
So, the conventional sync scheme shows the blur in the "wrong" side of
a moving subject. Here is where TAILFLASH sync (or 2nd curtain sync in
case of FP shutters) comes in. If one first records the blur due to
ambient light with a relatively long exposure time, and just previous
to the shutter closing one pops a short duration flash, the sharp
image will appear at the end of the blur and on a print the blur will
appear to "trail" the moving subject, just like artists have convinced
us this effect shgould look like. 
In certain instances one can make the action proceed backwards and use
conventional X sync to show believable subject motion "forwards" but
with human motion or destructive events this is most often not
possible. At least not convincingly so.
BTW... the combination of ambient and flash exposures was much
exploited by photographers such as Philip Leonian and Ben Rose. 
Andy, at RIT's Imaging and Photo Tech Dept., andpph@rit.edu
Note 31.10            -< Photo Related URLS - HUGE list >-
    HUGE list of photography related URLS on a worldwide basis. This list
    is from my Netscape bookmark file. It includes many references I have
    got from other people and lists around the WWW. If you have a list you
    are welcome to take what you want from here. I have edited out most of
    the non-photo stuff and converted it  to plain text. There will be
    mistakes in this; also some sites will have disappeared  since I
    visited them. There are also a few (not many) I haven't yet got round
    to trying. I'd be happy to receive any additions and corrections to
    this list.
    (see my pictures on FIXING SHADOWS: 
    http://fermi.clas.virginia.edu/Niepce/peter-m.pl )
http://www.scotborders.co.uk/photon/ - Photon Home Page
http://sunsite.unc.edu/nppa/photon95.html  - Photon Express - US Nat 
       Press Photo Newsletter (text)
http://www.novalink.com/pei.html - Photo Electronic Imaging Mag
http://www.trincoll.edu/tj/trincolljournal.html - Trincoll Journall - 
       Multimedia mag
http://pni4news.wwa.com - PNI's homepage
http://www.padd.press.net/ - Press Association
http://www.mindspring.com/~frankn/atlanta/  - The Atlanta 
       Photojournalism Seminar
http://sunsite.unc.edu/nppa/photon95.html - Photon Express - 
       US Nat Press Photo Newsletter (text)
http://www.newsusa.com"  - News USA home page 
http://enterzone.berkeley.edu/enterzone.html - Enterzone zine
http://www.awa.com/w2/intimations/i-1.3.html -photography and poetry -  
       Websters Weekly
http://math.liu.se/~behal/photo/ - Behal photo list - Bengt's Photo page
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/philg/photo/ - Philip Greenspun's Photo Page
gopher://gopher.blackstar.com:70/1 - Gopher: Blackstar
gopher://gopher.panix.com:70/11/Photography  - Gopher: panix com
http://www.phantom.com/~kadvocat/keri.html - Keri's list of photosites etc
http://www.cris.com/~mppa/ - MPPA's World Wide Web  home page
http://sunsite.unc.edu/nppa/dig95/diggallery.html - NPPA index to photo sites
http://www.ksu.edu/~camk/photography.html - Photography on the Web
http://sapphire.surgery.wisc.edu/paul.html - Paul's Photo list
http://www.lib.cortland.edu/photo.html - WWW page for Photo related WWW 
http://www.nmsi.ac.uk/nmpft/hotlist0.htm - NMPFT Bradford list of Photo 
http://www.art.net/ - Art on the Net
GENERAL LISTS useful for finding photo related information
       Art sources
http://www.rsl.ox.ac.uk/bardhtml/ - BARD (Boolean Access to Remote Databases)
http://www.catalog.com/bhunter/welcome.htm - Brent's Internet Jumpstation
http://www.netcenter.com/ - The Interactive Yellow Pages(Tm)
http://www.openmarket.com/info/internet-index/current.html - Internet Index
http://www.hw.ac.uk:8080/libWWW/irn/irn.html - internet rewources guide 
       - Herriot Watt Univ
http://www.kingston.ac.uk/directory/directory - Kingston Univ list of 
       interesting sites
http://www.tribal.com - Tribal Voice- listing of Web sites
       Internet guide updates
http://www.yahoo.com - Yahoo - A Guide to WWW sites
http://www.goshen.edu/~floyd/index.html - Some Internet Search Tools
http://www.interpath.net/home/search.html - WWW Launch Pad 
http://www.albany.net/~wcross/all1srch.html - All searches front end
http://cuiwww.unige.ch/meta-index.html - Meta-Index
gopher://marvel.loc.gov/11/global/sci/astro - Library of Congress, (usa), 
http://lcweb.loc.gov/homepage/lchp.html - Library of Congress World Wide 
       Web Home Page
http://www.webcom.com/~gwalker/"  - Digital Daguerreian Archive
http://cmp1.ucr.edu/exhibitions/cmphome2.html - California Museum of 
http://www.zdepth.com/cia/ - Cleveland Institute of Art
http://www.iuma.com/iuma-bin/imagemap/artnet-map - The Internet Arts 
       Museum Main Floor
http://www.macom.co.il/museum/phooto-1 - Israel Museum Photography
http://www.nmsi.ac.uk/nmpft - NMPFT Bradford home page
http://bookweb.cwis.uci.edu;8042/AdamsHome.html - Ansel Adams
http://www.cea.edu/robert/ - Robert Altman's Homepage
http://www.netwest.com/~aerial/ - aerial photos of Arizona
http://arthole.com/ - Art Hole
http://www.artn.nwu.edu/gallery.html - (Art)^n Laboratory
http://www.ashe.miami.edu/ab/artweb.html - Artweb Miami
http://www.mindspring.com/~baird/apg/index.html - Atlanta Photo Group Gallery
http://bookweb.cwis.uci.edu:8042/Jazz/jazz.html - Avery'sJazz Photography
http://www.dircon.co.uk/maushaus/azario/azario.html - Stefano Azario - 
       editorial / ad work - from London
http://www.onramp.net/~hbarker - Hal Barker, Korean War
http://www.art.net/Studios/Visual/Troyb/home.html Troy Bennett
http://data.ns.ccf.org/kositss/w.4 - Berlin Fashion
http://www.ashe.miami.edu/ab/webme.html - Adam Block
http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/bbrace/12hr.jpeg - 12 hourly jpeg image 
       sequence: B Brace
http://www.teleport.com/~bbrace/bbrace.html - Brad Brace 
http://metro.turnpike.net/J/job/index.html - Jochen Brennecke - 
       Photoshop images
http://www2.msstate.edu/~celeste/cbgallery.html Celeste Brignac
http://www.xmission.com/~photofx/  Ron Brown - Randy J Brown photos
http://www.dfki.uni-sb.de/~butz - Andreas Butz homepage
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/jc/jca/photos/photopage.html - Gallery - JC
http://internetcafe.allyn.com/davidc.html - Clumpner Photographic Archive
http://www.gonix.com/fcollins/welcome.html - Fred Collins - The Light 
       - James Cook University exhibition
http://fermi.clas.virginia.edu/~ds8s/julia-md/jmd-1.html - JMD Photos
http://www.iia.org/~deckerj - John Decker - Covington's Homeless
http://www.intac.com/~jdeck - John Decker - Carnival workers
http://cs.williams.edu/~95als/dephocus/ - Dephocus WWW site
http://www.picture.com/Alan-Dorow.html  Alan Dorow - Animal Crackers
http://www.earthlink.net:80/~rdunn/ - Rick Dunn
http://www.mtn.org/~ddb" ADD_DATE="802992870 - David Dyer-Bennet
http://the-tech.mit.edu/Gallery/gallery.html - The Edgerton Center's 
       Online Photo Gallery
http://usa.net/~davef/ - Dave Faulkner Gallery
http://www.art.net/Studios/Visual/Fenster/ritofab_Home/fenster.html - D. Fenster
http://atm21.ucdavis.edu/~fishman  - Schuyler Beth Fishman
http://fermi.clas.virginia.edu/~ds8s/ - Fixing Shadows
http://branch.com/artists/artists.html - Gallery of Artists,NYC ... 
http://www.mindspring.com/~galbrair/galbraithhomepage.html - Rob Galbraith
http://www.slip.net/~chuckg/ - Chuck Gathard home page
http://www.wimsey.com/Generality/Generality.html" - Generality Home Page
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/philg/photo/ - Philip Greenspun
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/samantha/travels-with-samantha.html - 
       Travels with Samantha {Philip Greenspun)
http://www.teleport.com/~illum. - David R. Griffith - Chris Gulker homepage
http://amug.org:80/~avishai/morephoto.html - Avishai Halevy photographs
http://www.interaccess.com/users/bhphoto/gallery.htmlGrafks - Brian 
       Heston - CyberGrafks
http://www.mindspring.com/~royal/cnphoto.html - Ron Hewitt, Olympic 
       construction photos in Atlanta
http://infosphere.com/aspen/Hiser/DavidHiser.html - David Hiser
http://liberty.uc.wlu.edu/~aholick - Arne S. Holick-Kuhlmann
       Hot Pictures - from Russia
http://ns.southern.edu/people/rphowell/angi.html - pictures - R P Howell
http://www.cs.vu.nl/~pmhudepo/ - Patrick MJ Hudepohl
http://www.infi.net/pilot/extra/gallery/gallery.html - Infi net gallery
http://holly.colostate.edu/~shane/photo.html  - Shane Iseminger's 
       Photojournalism on line
http://www.dataflash.it/made.htm - Italian fashion and creativity
http://www.mcs.net/~rjacobs/home.html - Photography HomePage - Richard 
       Jacobs - Brian K. Johnson
http://www.lehigh.edu/~aj02/digital_wave.html - Lisa Johnston
http://www.eunet.fi/nepal/ - Petri Kaipiainen, photos of Nepal
http://www.access.digex.net/~keithj/2Sight.html - Keith's Second Sight - 
       Photojournalism (US)
http://www.euronet.nl/users/shorty/index.html - Hans de Kort
http://liberty.uc.wlu.edu/~aholick - Arne Kuhlmann, photojournalism
http://www.rt66.com/swest/labane/labane.html - figure-in-landscape 
       Edward LaBane
http://ironbark.bendigo.latrobe.edu.au/staff/photo/photo.html - La Trobe 
       Univ Australia Home Page
ttp://sensemedia.net/sprawl/35060 - Daniel Leighton's 3D Gallery
http://ted.ele.madison.tec.wi.us/art/start1.html - Students work - 
       Madison Area Technical College
http://www.intac.com/~jdeck/tahra - Tahra Makinson-Sanders, two photo 
http://edu-gw.isy.liu.se/~y94chrma/ - Chris Maluszynski
http://www.nwlink.com/~gmanasse - Geoff Manasse
http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~bmarcus/home.html - b marcus home page
http://fermi.clas.virginia.edu/Niepce/peter-m.pl - Peter Marshall - 
       Carnival and London buses
http://www.dircon.co.uk/maushaus/Mousefile.html - Maushaus virtual 
       gallery - London
http://www.webcom.com/~zume - Rajiv Mehta (5 photographers)
http://www.sirius.com/~meatyard - Meatyard Photopage
http://konpeito.bekkoame.or.jp/~misawa/ - Yasushi Misawa - Japanese 
http://www.cris.com/~okyeron/ - Steven Noreyko
http://nyweb.com/mainmenu.html - New York Web Main Menu
http://sunsite.unc.edu/otis/ - OTIS Home Page
http://antics.com/mpearl.html - Pearl St. Online Gallery
http://www.bradley.edu/exhibit/index.html - Peoria Digital Photo Galley '94 in 
       Peoria, Il
http://www.bradley.edu/exhibit95/ - second annual Peroia  Art Guild and 
       Bradley University Digital Photo Show
http://www.phantom.com/ - Phantom - photography
http://www.homepages.com/~photoweb/ - PhotoWeb,
http://www.picture.com/ - picture gallery
http://white.nosc.mil/art.html - Planet Earth Home Page - Art and Photography
http://www.abc.se/~m8976 - Jannis Politidis home page - Stockholm
http://www.commerce.com/procko/ - Steve Procko
http://www.tis.com/Home/Personal/Ranum/Page.html - Marcus J. Ranum
http://hammers.wwa.com/hammers -  Steve Rapport Photography
http://riker.ps.missouri.edu/RicksPage.html - Rick Reed
http://www.rit.edu - Rochester Institute of Technology
http://ultb.rit.edu/~rckpph - School of Photographic Arts and Sciences 
       at Rochester Institute
http://web.metronet.com/~arose/home.html - Alen Rose, news photographer
http://interport.net/~sr - Stacy Rosenstock - Stacey's Home Journal
http://www.mtn.org/~ddb - San Francisco, photography - SF Camerawork
http://www.webcom.com/~zume/JW.InTransit/InTransit.html - Sanfrancisco 
       transit pics
http://www.crl.com/~whisper/SaraTOC2.html - Sara
http://myth.com - Mythopoeia, by Suza Scalora
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/ss/sschwab/schbase.htm - Bill Schwab photo home page
http://www.umich.edu/~cjericks/gallery/gallery.html - figure photographer 
       Jody Schiesser
http://www.mindspring.com/~atlphoto/schwarz.html - Michael Schwarz - 
       Down's syndrome, Religious extremeists, Fungicide
http://dana.ucc.nau.edu/~sps - Stephen Schweitzer home page
http://cs.williams.edu/~95als/dephocus/ - Adam Seligman
http://clark.lcs.mit.edu:80/~rsilvers/rsilvers.html - Rob Silvers - 
       photo, ray tracing etc.
http://avocado.pc.helsinki.fi/~janne/photo/photo.html - Janne Sinkkonen's Page
http://http1.brunel.ac.uk:8080/~is93swc/ - Sophia's Home Page
http://gertrude.art.uiuc.edu/ludgate/the/place/place2.html - Joseph 
       Squier, University of Illinois
http://www.magic.ca/magicmedia/hypervision/hventer2.html - The Florida 
       Series.  Steve Stober
http://ziris.syr.edu/ - Syracuse University Art School
http://www.rt66.com/austin/ - Southwest USA -Fine Art Images
http://gertrude.art.uiuc.edu/ludgate/urban_diary/page1/diarypage1.html - 
       urban diary page 1 (Joseph Squier)
http://BizServe.com/thirdeye/ - Third Eye PhotoWork Collection. 
http://www.cs.arizona.edu/people/bmtong/photo.html - bmtong photos
http://nermal.santarosa.edu/~mfaught/2dog.html - Two Dog Gallery
http://www.cnct.com/home/webmaker/rain.html - Natsuko Utsium - 
       Rainforest photos - Victoria Australia Pix - Ben
http://www.fullerton.edu/viscom/vishome.html - VisCom, Cal State University
http://sunsite.unc.edu/otis/pers/Volk_O.html - Oleg Volk
http://www.digimark.net/galaxy/  - Jason Ware Astrophotography
http://www.aaj.com/aaj - WorldWide Gallery
http://www.fa.indiana.edu/~s491 - The Computer and Photography
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/philg/how-to-scan-photos.html - Greenspun's 
       Guide to Scanning Photos
ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/hsc/Kais_Power_Tips/pc_tips/ - Directory of  
       Kais_Power_Tips for pc
http://the-tech.mit.edu/KPT/KPT.html - Kai's Power Tips and Tricks for 
http://www.cs.cmu.edu:8001/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/rwb/www/gamma.html - 
       explanation about monitor gamma
http://agno3-si.clemson.edu/CC/ALT.PHOTO.PROC.FAQ.html - ALt processe FAQ
http://www.usask.ca/~holtsg/photo/faq.html - 2nd Alt Proc FAQ
http://www.dopig.uab.edu/ - DOPIG Home Page
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/philg/photo/framing.text - Notes on framing
http://aragorn.solutionsrc.com/PHOTOWORKS/pw9.htm - Professor FilmWorks' 
       Camera Tip of the Month
http:/www.ip.net/shops/1GlamourPhoto - GlamourPhoto posing guides
http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~philg/photo/hand-coloring.html - Guide to 
       Hand Coloring Photos
http://www.mta.ca/ - MAIL ORDER ADVICE TO ALL
gopher://atlas.chem.utah.edu:70/11/MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheets (from BYU)
http://www.cs.arizona.edu/people/bmtong/ - Nikon FAQ 
http://www.cs.arizona.edu/people/bmtong/ - Nikon Flash
http://www.siu.edu/departments/ctc/apartphp/ - Photoshop work by students at 
       Southern Illinois University
http://www.cs.arizona.edu/people/bmtong/photo/ - Rec photo FAQ
http://www.chemie.unibas.ch/default.html - Scientic Research - restoring 
       old film etc
http://www.galaxyphoto.com/galaxy - Astrophotography
http://www.ashe.miami.edu/ab/photo.html - B&W instruction page)
http://www.ios.com/~badger/ - Canon EOS FAQ
http://sunsite.unc.edu/nppa/index.html - National Press Photographers Assoc.
http://tronic.rit.edu:80/Minolta/ - Minolta Users Group
http://www.adobe.com/Apps/Photoshop.html - Adobe Photoshop
http://www.netwest.com/~aerial/  Arizona Aerial Photographs
http://akebono.stanford.edu/yahoo/Business/Corporations/Photography/ - 
http://infoweb.net/rockaloid/ - Rockland Colloid
http://www2.interpath.net/gallimore/ - Cramer Gallimore Studio
http://www.intnet.net/Tampa/Market/Photo.html - Bruce Hosking's Pages
http://www.kodak.com/homePage.shtml - Kodak
http://bluedog.ucdavis.edu/ucdis/title_pg.htm - Illustration Services Server
http://www.designlink.com - Photo Group, Professional
http://www.nets.com/sfworkshop.html - Santa Fe Workshops Home page
http://www.solutionsrc.com/PHOTOWORKS/ - Seattle FilmWorks
http://pni4news.wwa.com/ - Seymour image browser (subscriber)
http://www.aztec.co.za/slpn/slpn_hp.html - SouthLight PictureNet Home Page
http://aztec.co.za/slpn - South Light Agency - S Africa
http://atnet.co.at/viennaslide/ - Viennaslide, online picture service
http://infoweb.net/rockaloid/ - Rockland Colloid at the InfoWeb Mall
http://www2.helix.net/~cameras/pacific.html - Pacific Camera Co 
       (secondhand collectible cameras - US)
http://www.demon.co.uk/arena/hagerty/index.html - Hagerty's Used
       Cameras, (UK)
http://www.ircam.fr/divers/arts-deadlines.html - Arts Deadlines [wossat?] 
http://cannes.zds.softway.worldnet.net - Cannes Film Festival
http://franceweb.fr/cine/cannes - Cannes Film Festival - The alternative
http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/misc/uk/london/london_photos.html - London Photos
http://math.liu.se:80/~behal/photo/ - Photographic Walking Tours in 
http://www.comlab.ox.ac.uk/archive/ox/photos.html - Oxford photographs   
       Views around Oxford
http://www.usgs.gov/ - Spy satellite photos
http://www.cityscape.co.uk/users/ae37/index.html - Vive La France!
===========================  end of section 31 ========================== 
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