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    FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions                  Section 35
          Please check "root" (faq$txt) file for acknowledgements. 
    This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated 
    with recurring  questions asked by photographers.   If you would like to 
    add a tidbit of knowledge to  this list just send it to   ANDPPH@rit.edu 
    who will gladly add it to this collection. For complete table of content
    send message to   ritphoto@rit.edu   with  FAQ$txt  in the Subject: line
                    These files are available in SECTIONS. 
             This is Section 35 and its contents are listed below.

    35.01   -< Where to get photo jigsaw puzzles made >- 
    35.02   -< What to do with a camera that took a dip in the sea? >-
    35.03   -< Russion Horizon(t) rotating lens panoramic cameras >-            
    35.04   -< How to expose, process and use Kodak Pro Copy film 4125 >-
    35.05   -< Tips for Winning Photo Contests >-
    35.06   -< Restoring faded photos by copying >-
    35.07   -< Poop sheet on processing outdated Agfa Superpan Press >-
    35.08   -< T-mounts, what are they? >- 
    35.09   -< Photography - the 8th art - article by Robert Fournier >-
    35.10   -< Developing stacks of prints simultaneously >-
    35.11   -< Quick and easy "X" sync flash test for field use >-
    35.12   -< How to compensate for exposure using extension tubes >-

Note 35.01     -< Where to get phjoto jigsaw puzzles made >-
>Where can I have my photographs made into jigsaw puzzles?

Photo jigsaw puzzles can be obtained at Fox Photo and CPI Photo stores. 
Check out the Fox Photo/CPI Photo home page at http://www.cpiphoto.com or
e-mail back to me for further information.
I have always been a puzzle nut and about 25 years ago I decided that my three
children needed a college fund so I put my enthusiasm about puzzles into a new
business venture. Currently we manufacture photo jigsaw puzzles for some of
the major wholesale photofinishers who have accounts in K-Mart, Walgreens, etc.
I find that there is a vast number of photo enthusiasts (and others) who would
like a one of a kind custom jigsaw puzzle but do not know where to get one. I
have decided (with my family) to go on the net and provide a very unique, one
of a kind, service. Our site (under construction) "Jigsaws to Order" will
convert any photo, drawing, in fact anything printed on paper, to a superb
quality, fully interlocking jigsaw puzzle. The original would be returned as
pieces of the actual jigsaw puzzle.

Marcia Joslin
P.S.  We are a long time member of PMA.

Joslin Photo Puzzle Co., P.O. Box 914, Southampton, Pa 18966-0914  USA
E-Mail  joslin@voicenet.com , Voice (215) 357-8346, Fax (215) 357-0307

Note 35.02   -< What to do with a camera that took a dip in the sea? >- 
>I have a Canon EOS 100QD which I had an accident with. That is, I got it soaked
>with salt water!! and it is not responding in any way. Is there anything that
>I should do immediately to try to salvage it?
Alas you probably have an expensive paperweight on your hands considering the
likely amount of time that has passed since it happened and now when I read 
your post. The problem is that sea water is a conductive electrolyte zapping 
out and corroding out the electronics with all the spurious connections it 
makes. The only-hope-first-aid when something like this happens is
_immediately_ turn it off and get the batteries out of it, and rinse it in
multiple changes of distilled water with a bit of soak time in the latter
rinses. The next step is to dry it out. One school of thought is to do a final
rinse in isopropyl alcohol which mixes with and greatly dilutes the water left,
but evaporates much more readily. Others claim that alcohol will attack and
dissolve plastics. I doubt it. Either way you have to dry it out--a hair dryer
on a moderate setting gets it started. Then keep it in a warm dry place for a
few days--maybe a cardboard box with a light bulb. During this time spin the
prayer wheels to the photo- graphy gods. Finally when you are sure it is dry,
put in new batteries and turn it on. Good luck.
Mike, Michael McGuire Hewlett Packard Laboratories
Internet: mcguire@hpl.hp.com 

Note 35.03     -< Russion Horizon(t) rotating lens panoramic cameras >- 
>What are the differences between 1970 and 1990 Russion Horizon(t) pnaoramic
I have both 1970 and 1990 models.  The old model has a single rotation speed
(1/30 @ full slit width).  There is also a 1/60 and 1/125.  Early (1967)
versions also had a 1/250 marked but because the slit width was so narrow
there were eneven exposure problems.  The next versions (1971) removed the
1/250 marking but the detent setting was still present and can be used.
 There seems to be an optimum optical slit width which is why Widelux and
Noblex use a fixed width.
The latest Horizon 202 has two rotation speeds and carries over the design
provision for four slit widths with only three marked (hence the unmarked
setting you referred to) and only three.  The new rotation speeds are 1/60
and 1/2 while the slit widths are the same as the 1/30-60-125 of the old
model.  This way they can offer a 1/250 which has even exposure.
The Widelux by the way uses three different governors to alter the rotation
speed and the slowest and fastest are often problematic.
I think of the FT2 more as a collectors item with limited usefullness as a
user camera.  

Note 35.04  -< How to expose, process and use Kodak Pro Copy film 4125 >-
>I'm finally getting to a project for which I bought a box of #4125 film some 
>time ago. 'Course, the first thing I did was take out the data sheet to read. 
>The next thing I did was lose it. So any info on this product (e.i. rating, 
>lighting sources, developers, processing times) would be greatly appreciated. 
here's some info on your film .... ISO = 12  with tungsten light source
Contrast is controlled by both exposure and development. The mid/dark tones are
controlled by development whilst the high lights are controlled by the
exposure. The data file is a little vague on developing basically saying it's a
matter of some experimentation and taking into account the original. ie if the
original has faded you might want to increase the exposure half a stop or so.
However here's the basic info:
Safe light = dark red No2 with 15 watt lamp       
HC-110 dil.E (tray)                4min      at 20C (68F)
             (rack/tank)           5min      at 20C (68F)
DK-50 (1:1)  (tray)                3min      at 20C (68F)
             (rack/tank)           3min 30s  at 20C (68F)
Stop bath.                        10sec      at 18C (65F)
Fix.                            5-10min      (or Kodak Rapid fix   2-4 min)
Wash for 20-30 min in running water @ 18-22C  (65-70F)
For a diffused light source enlarger the neg should have a D-Max of  1.20
FYI the film has now been replaced with Kodak Gravure Positive film 4135 (ISO 8)
I think the problem with Kodak is it's vast size makes it inefficient, although
I've found the UK technical support very good on the phone and fax. I agree
with Robert Chebby putting technical info on the Net would be ideal, exactly
what it should be used for!
Steve Tristram 
Pro copy film:
Tungsten     ISO 12/12
Pulsed-Xenon ISO 25/15
  Tungsten: 2 500 watt reflector or 3200 K lamps, 36 in from center of copy
  f/22  8sec  no filter
Pulsed-Xenon: 2 1500 watt lamps, 36 in from copy center   
  f/ 32  8sec  no filter
Dev 68F  (20C) with agitation
  tray (continuous agitation), tank (agitate at 1 min intervals)
Tungsten:   HC110 Dilution E            4 min             5  min
            DK-50 (1:1)               3 to 3.5min         3.5min
Pulsed X:    same
this info is from a  sheet is dated 2/89.
I use the HC110 at 5.5 min. agitating every other half min as well as every min
the voice of Kodak (the 800 number) is generally very helpful if you don't mind 
wandering through the automated answering machine and waiting for a live voice.
I can send you a fax of the data sheet if you'd like.
L. Vanderploeg, vanderploeg@biochem.wisc.edu, U. of Wisconsin-Madison Media Lab
I don't have the data sheet but try Kodak's web page 
Rich Lubitz (lubitz@alpha.fdu.edu)
I use this quite a bit.... Set film speed to 12
Process in HC 110 Dilution E (that's 1:47 from the *syrup*)
Tank processing in Film Hangers ...5.5 min. At 68 deg F/ 20 deg C
You can expose up to about 10 seconds before reciprocity failure cuts in. Since
the film is orthochromatic you may process in red safelight conditions and
develop *by inspection*
Info on Kodak Pro Copy 4125: ASA 12 with tungsten or quartz-iodine lighting
HC-110 (dilution E) - 6 minutes in a tank @ 20 C or
DK-50 (1:1) or similar developer - 8 minutes in a tank @ 20 C.
These are  good starting points for exposure & developing times. With this
film, added exposure increases contrast, and reduced exposure reduces contrast.
Use this for adjusting your results. (Film is designed this way.) If you have
a densitometer available adjust exposure to produce a highlight aim density
of 1.52.
Dave Van Verst, Morton Professional Photo Lab, Morton, IL 61550  PROLAB@aol.com
Kodak Professional Copy Film 4125 (Estar Thick Base)
Orthochromatic film retaining highlight graduation in copies.
  *Moderate course grain
  *Medium resolving power
  *Provides increased highlight contrast needed for continuous-tone copy and
   in photogravure reproduction
  *For use with Kodak Safelight Filter No.2 (dark red) or equivalent.
  *Film Speed: Tungsten and QuartzIodine, ISO 12/12, Pulsed Xenon ISO 25/15;
   White-Flame Arc,ISO 25/15
  *Recommended Kodak Developers HC-110, DK-50(1:1)
The only reference for I have for development times is:
8 minutes at 68F/20C degrees in HC110 1+7  
From: lwells@kths.nsw.edu.au (LW)

Note 35.05                 -< Photo Contest Tips >-
Tips for Winning Photo Contests
Excerpted with permission from "Contests, Grants and Awards for Photographers"
edited by Richard S. McWherter, Walkwood Publishing Company
Copyright (c) 1995. All rights reserved.
(See information at the end of this article.)
1.) Edit your work before submitting it for juried contests. Be brutal. Don't
include the same subject in more than one picture unless it is part of a work
in series and will be judged that way. As a photographer, you are always
editing. Deciding what not to include in your viewfinder is just as important
(some would say more important), than deciding what to include. Use the same
knowledge and instinct that you use in making photographs when you are editing
your work.
2.) Submit only your best work. There are several ways that can help you decide
which is your best work. In most cases, you already know, but you may lack
confidence about your work. In those cases, seeking the opinion of others may
be helpful. Try to find people you respect and will be honest with you.
Ideally, it might be someone in photography or the arts. Be careful, sometimes
the picture that is the most popular among your friends and family may not be
so unique to judges or people who work with images.
On the other hand, you may be over confident about your work, especially if you
attach emotions regarding your memory about where you were and how you made the
photo. In this case, it's sometimes a good idea to put the work out of sight
for a while and then return to it later with a more objective eye.
Other suggestions that might be helpful would be to learn as much as you can
about composition and design. One hint is to view your picture through a
mirror, or even upside down. If you have an understanding of composition, then
you know that a good composition is usually good no matter how you look at it.
If it still looks like a good photo backwards or upside down, then it probably
is. If not, move on.
3.) Images should be properly focused. Proper focus does not mean everything
must be in sharp focus. However, a good image that is obviously out of focus
will fail. In fact, what determines a great photograph from a good photo is
what the photographer decided should be and should not be in focus. Even in
abstract or blur motion images, there is usually at least one element of
critical focus, even if that element is simply the grain structure of the film!
4.) Proper Exposure. Proper exposure in the classical sense is an image that
has details in both the highlights (white or light areas) and shadow (black or
dark areas), with a generous range of shades in between. However, this area is
more open to interpretation in contemporary work. In fact, some photographers
over or under expose to achieve certain effects. An example might be an image
where the highlights go off the film scale and can give an image added
emphasis, particularly if it is an environmental portrait in a harsh locale. In
this case the contrast exceeds the limitations of the film, but it might be the
best interpretation for that photographer. However, for most work, films that
are properly exposed and have a normal contrast range are the best bet. If
you're unsure about the proper exposure, take comfort knowing that even many
professionals bracket their exposures to make sure they're covered.
5.) Always ask for details directly from the contest organizer regarding the
type of contest, the scope (national, regional, etc.), the eligibility
requirements, the subject or theme of the contest (if any), the entry fee and
the awards. A stamped, self addressed reply envelope works best to request
entry details or forms. The book "Contests, Grants and Awards for
Photographers" (see below) is a good starting point as a source for contest
listings. One item to look for is the ratio between the amount of the entry fee
and the prizes awarded.
6.) Other items that should be of interest to you are the rights and ownership
of winning entries. I would never enter a contest that takes away all of the
photographer's rights, regardless of the prize. Most reasonable people would
consider this exploiting photographers. And I am very particular about what
organizations request in rights. In most cases it is reasonable that
organizations request rights to use your images to promote the contest itself.
However, it becomes a little less clear if companies use your pictures to
promote their products without further compensation to you. In all cases, those
rights should be limited, particularly by the time frame that the rights are
7.) Colour or black and white? This one is more difficult, since colour is such
a strong part of our culture. Some contests have separate categories to address
this problem. In a lot of cases colour work gets more of the glory. However,
one way to stand out in a sea of excellent colour images is with a very
powerful black and white photograph. Sometimes we see so much colour daily,
that when a dramatic black and white comes along it can stop us in our tracks.
My personal approach is I use colour work for landscapes; where colour is part
of the experience of remembering or creating a time and place. In comparison, I
use black and white images for portraiture. Black and white images are great
equalizers, the camera doesn't care how nice your clothes are or what colour
your skin is. What counts in a black and white portrait is the expression of
both the subject and the photographer. The mood and the essence of the person
become paramount and black and white can remove the distracting emotions that
overwhelming colours can create.
8.) Presentation is 9 tenths of the law. How you present your work is very
important. But that doesn't mean you should buy expensive folios or cases.
Excesses on both sides of this scale can be harmful. Judges are not impressed
by how much you spend on your presentation and are often annoyed by cumbersome
mats, frames or folios. On the other side, the care and handling of a fine
print presentation is often seen as a carry over from the photographer's
attention to detail and that can be influential. And of course, scratched and
dirty prints that are not spotted and have bent corners only distract from your
work. In all cases, you must follow the specific guidelines published for each
contest you're interested in. Some allow mats and frames, some don't. And those
that do usually have detailed instructions regarding sizes, etc.
9.) Often contests ask for you to submit slides of your work, even if the
original is a print. In these cases, you must copy your work with 35mm slide
film and submit the copy slide. Colour slide film with a low ISO speed usually
works the best. Ektachrome, Fujichrome or equivalent are fine. Kodachrome may
give you a slightly better slide, but it is usually more expensive to buy and
process and can take awhile longer at the lab. The Ektachrome films are fine,
especially since there's a chance the slides might not be returned or could be
damaged in shipping.
Use daylight balanced film for flash or tungsten film for photofloods. Use a
tripod and a cable release and lock the mirror for the sharpest image. A copy
stand is highly recommended. Bracketing your exposures is helpful, but don't
over do it. A written record of your copy exposures will go a long way when you
need to repeat the process. Remember, this is the only example the judges will
have of your work, so it must be the highest quality copy possible and
faithfully represent your work.
If your original is a slide to begin with, send only a duplicate slide.
Duplicates can be made by most labs or you can make them yourself with the
right equipment. If your subject permits, the least expensive extra slide can
be made at the same time as the original by shooting extra frames. In all
cases, never send one of a kind originals, unless you don't mind never seeing
them again.
10.) The heart has its reasons, which reason can not know. This last tip is
probably the most important. Basically it means that you must make photographs
that you are passionate about. These are the photographs that win most
contests. You should not try to reason which pictures will win a contest (or
have won) and then try to photograph those kinds of pictures. However, if you
continue to make photographs that are important or pleasing to you, you will
become better at it.
Never make photographs because you think you'll make money winning contests.
It's not about money. It's about making photographs because nothing else
matters unless you do. If someone else appreciates your work, then that's just
icing on the cake.
As a final note, let me remind you that persistence is the key to survival. If
you enter contests regularly, you must get use to rejection notices like a duck
is use to water. I enjoy the recognition that contests have brought me, but I
have never let a critic or a rejection slip stop me from what I know is right
for me. Don't let it stop you! Good Luck!
Rick, mcwherter@delphi.com 
Permission to reprint or repost this information is granted to the reader
providing the following conditions are met: The file title, author's name and
the copyright notice must remain in place along with the author's short
biography and the name and contact information of the publisher.
Richard S. McWherter is an artist working in the medium of fine art
photography. For more than eighteen years his activities have included the
learning, creating, exhibiting and teaching of photography as a Visual Art. His
work has appeared in many regional shows and national exhibitions. He has won
numerous awards and his photographs have been published in national magazines
for fine art photography. He continues to promote the art of photography by
exchanging views and resources with students, artists, photographers and
For more information on photo contests, including details of the author's newly
published book with a comprehensive listing of opportunities for photographers,
note that "Contests, Grants and Awards for Photographers" has over 200 sources
of contests especially for photographers with award totals over $100,000.
Please contact the author via Compuserve (73071,1112) or the internet
(mcwherter@delphi.com) or the publisher below for complete information.
Walkwood Publishing Company Box 246 Derry, PA 15627 USA 
Note 35.06     -< Restoring faded photos by copying >- 
>A client has asked me to "restore" some old photos. They're extremely faded,
>and have a yellowish cast to them. Seems to me I remember that copying with
>a yellow filter does a lot to bring out some contrast & detail. Any help on
>this project from you experts out there will, as always, be deeply
If they're very faded just copying them won't work very well. You need to
increase the density in the actual photos. There a very clear step-by-step
description on photo restoration (not just copying) using a silver nitrate
formula in the Time-Life book, Caring for Photographs. Not cheap though.
George Struk / geostar@dorsai.org
Kodak has a pamphlet out about this, probably available free if you call
1-800-242-2424. The production of a clean, new duplicate of the photo can be
done with ordinary short-toed panchromatic sheet film and commonly available
filters. Typically, the image's black "density" has been converted, by means
of a combination of leftover fixer in the film and atmospheric sulfur compounds
into silver sulfide. The density is still THERE, only it's in the form of
yellowish silver sulfide.
Using a sheet film like T-Max 100 or Plus-X (or rollfilm if necessary),
photograph the faded print through light and dark green, and blue filters, over
a range of exposures.  A correct mix of filter and exposure will yield, in many
cases, a negative which will make an excellent new copy print, with most if not
all of the fading corrected. What you have done is to limit the light
available at the negative to colors which are blocked by the yellowed silver
sulfide. In blue light, that thin yellow deposit appears to be opaque, just as
black silver deposits appear in white light!
It works; I've done it. If the original image has other problems, then
electronic restoration may well be necessary, but for simple fading, it is
often just as easy to make a negative and copy print this way.
Edward M. Lukacs, LRPS, eml@gate.net

Note 35.07  -< Poop sheet on processing outdated Agfa Superpan Press >-
> ...I recently picked up 5 bricks of some outdated B & W film at a photo flea
> market - Agfa Superpan, ASA 200... anyone have handling/processing pointers?

Agfa Superpan was imported "gray market" during one of Agfa's many changes of
distributors.  The time frame was 1981 I woiuld guess.   I contacted Agfa at
the time and received a reply from the Gevaert graphic arts group in New York
City, supplying development info and  advising me that this was an unauthorized
import.  By the time I got the  response, I was convinced that the film was the
best that I had ever  seen with finer grain than Plus-X, and more latitude.  I
even ran some tests and found it made nice negatives when developed in Diafine
with an EI of 500 or 640!  Wrote back to the guys at Gevaert and asked WHY they
weren't importing the best film they made!
Reading from the data sheet that they sent me (Still have it!  Still waiting
for more!) ypu can use the following at 20C (68 deg. F):
Rodinal             1:25              6 minutes
Rodinal             1:50             10 minutes
HC-110              1:15              4 Minutes
HC-110              1:31             11 minutes
D-76                Straight          6 Minutes
Microdol-X           "                8 minutes
Microphen            "                7 minutes
ID-11                "                7 Minutes
Neofin Red           "               17 Minutes        
With some benzotriazole, that Superpan might be useable, as since it was still
in a brick, it might have been kept cold. I'm not kidding, it's great! 

Edward M. Lukacs, LRPS, eml@gate.net, Miami, Florida, USA
Note 35.08           -< T-mounts, what are they? >- 
>What is T mount and T* mount? Is Contax/Yashica mount the same as a T mount?
T mount is an attempt to be able to utilize one lens for SLRs of different
manufacturers. The lens itself had on the camera body side a standard T mount
male thread. The T mount adapter - one for each different camera mount - was
between the lens and the camera body. This adapter had on the lens side a
female thread to fit onto the male thread of the lens; on the camera side of
the adapter was the standard body coupling for a given  camera. So you had an
adapter for Nikon, one for Olympus, one for  Minolta, etc. This allowed you to
use the same lens with different  camera bodies...all you needed to do was
acquire the respective T mount  adapters.
Needless to say, such lenses are not automatic; that is, they did not allow 
you to focus at the largest f/stop and - when the shutter release was 
depressed - 'automatically' stop down to the selected f/stop and then  open up
again to the largest f/stop. Instead, they are pre-set: you set  the lens at
the f/stop you wanted with one diaphram ring, turned the lens  wide open with a
second diaphram ring, focused, then - just before you  hit the shutter release
- stopped the lens down to the desired f/stop by  turning that second diaphram
ring until it came to rest against where the  first diaphram ring was set. Slow
and cumbersome and easy to overexpose  because you forgot to stop the lens down
again to the taking f/stop. But  the system worked and rather inexpensively at
Lawrence Akutagawa, aku@crl.com 
A "T" mount as in Tamron is a system that makes a accessory lens with
a screw mount similar to the M42 (Pentax/Pratika) it has a coarser thread
pitch. You would then screw on your Nikon, Pentax, Minolta etc adapter to
mount this lens to your camera. You will still see T-mounts on microscope
and telescope adapters, plus some mirror lenses. Tamron developed the T
mount system but dropped it in favour of their Adaptall mount, as the T
mount did not allow for meter coupling so most T-mount lenses were of the
`pre-set' aperture type. A few companies tried to improve on the T-mount
(such as the TX mount) but these were clumsy attempts at best. Only Tamron
stuck with the interchangable lens mount concept (for manual focus cameras)
all the other Aftermarket lenses went to a fixed mount.
From: ad607@FreeNet.Carleton.CA (Darrell A. Larose)

Note 35.09   -< Photography - the 8th art - article by Robert Fournier >-
PHOTOGRAPHY: THE 8th ART  (as seen on the PhotoHst mailing list)
Copyright: Robert Fournier, 1995

"The arts equally have distinct departments, and unless photography has its own
possibilities of expression, separate from those of the other arts, it is
merely a process, not an art; but granted that it is an art, reliance should
be placed unreservedly upon those possibilities, that they may be made to yield
the fullest results" (Alfred Stieglitz, 1901 - from Alfred Stieglitz:
photographs & writings, National Gallery of Art, Callaway Editions 1983)
It is through the study of the mechanics and chemistry of photography, by
questioning inherent characteristics, unique to the process, and by comparison
of photographic expression with that of other art forms in which an artist can
express himself through is medium. It is by understanding what photography is
and does that one comprehend the "idea of photography".

From my artistic practice, I have identified an pattern in most forms of
artistic expression. Fundamentally, art is a form of communication as well as a
way of expressing oneself or one's visions and emotions to others. There is
always a message to communicate in an artwork and this message is the idea that
the artist wants to express. Actually, I am talking here about the act of
creation and not of interpretation.

The dictionary defines an idea as a abstract representation of a person, an
object, a relation... elaborated by the mind. In any case, an idea is an
abstract phenomenon, a quality considered as its own entity, independent of the
object of which it is an element. It is in the imagination that the idea takes
a shape. This is where painters see images and musicians hear music. It is his
imagination, inspired by an idea, that guides the artist into the realization
of his artwork. The idea is then the activating part of imagination, which is
realized with the personal vision of the artist, with the goal of
interpretation. From this point of view, I believe that most art forms follow
this pattern: IDEA - IMAGINATION - ARTWORK.  Photography that end with the
realization of an image, should be one of these art forms using the
two-dimensional space as a mean of expression. It would then be just another
technique within this art form.

Like artists of other disciplines, photographers can imagine an infinity of
images from their mind and memory, but they will not be able to produce
anything without a concrete objects to photograph. Painters can remember the
shapes and colors of an apple to draw an apple; or likewise writers to describe
one. Photographers need the apple to make a picture of it. They cannot avoid
their environment, and the image formed by the lens is determinant.

The necessity of an object establishes a kind of relation, a direct bond
between the photographer and the reality. It is precisely on this relation that
"the idea of photography" is founded. Two different avenues are frequently
taken in the artistic approach of photographers. The firs one involves in
reassembling and arranging elements needed to realize their idea, then
photographing it. For example, practitioners of plastic art who use photography
to produce their artwork. This approach coincides well with the preceding
pattern: IDEA - IMAGINATION -ARTWORK. Their interest is mainly pictorial and
their approach is similar to that of artists whose expression is in image

The second approach is founded on the acceptance of all elements needed for
realization of an image, just as they are and disposes in their actual
environment. Qualified as "straight photography", the subject has major
importance for the practitioners of this approach. Images so produced are, in
other words, recreations of real events. Many of these photographers, preferring
objectivity to interpretation of the event they are witnessing, abstain from
interpreting during printing as well. Other allow a certain subjectivity with
minor manipulations. But in either case, these photographers show a profound
respect for the truth and reality of the subjects they are photographing. This
second approach differs from the former pattern in that there is the necessity
of a relationship with actual reality. The idea, then, is suggested by the
environment in active evolution. I would describe this new pattern as:

The actual study of photography, as any other visual art, is usually studying
the artwork. According to the preceding pattern, the fundamental difference of
photography is in the relation between the idea and the reality and not in the
artwork. Difference happening here are mainly technical and proper to the
photographic material. It is not because an artist is using material belonging to
photography that his approach responds to "the idea of photography". This
approach differs from pictorialism principally, in the degree and quality of
attachment with life and the insistence on truth in representation. It never
abolishes the plastic aspect of the medium, it only establish new frontiers and
gives another direction. The esthetic is now devoted to life and reality. What
is the foal of one, is the means used by the other to reach his goal.

"The idea of photography" comes from the concept of equivalence first stated by
Stieglitz in the twenties. It was then adopted by many photographers,
particularly by Minor White. This concept is based on the fact that we are
impressionable and we react to visual events. At this moment, an emotional
equivalent is defined, this is where the idea of equivalence occurs. It
represents impressions felt and lived. Whether the approach is documentary or
pictorial, objective or interpretative, the motive of expressive photography
rests in this equivalence, establishing the relation needed between the artist
and his subject. Equivalence does not have any style, nor does it belong to any
specific art form; it is an impression, a pure emotion.

So far "the idea of photography" rests in the relation of the artist with
actual and living reality. Images produced by him result from his intimacy with
life and reality. It is a noticeable fact that many of these photographers
devote a real passion and a profound respect to their subject matter, often
beyond the appection they devote to the work they produce from it. This
particular relation with the subject resides in the capacity to look
differently through the viewer of the camera. Produced images show the relation
between the artist's imagination and his environment in actual evolution,
whether he decides to interpret it or not.

The photographer must feel reality and the subject within himself, and it is
the equivalence that permits him to do so. Otherwise the subject has only an
interpretative value. The profound bond and the sensation of belonging that
come with the spontaneity of discovery is not there.

From its relationship with reality, photographic images relieve very often,
from historical document. The spontaneity of the medium and his impressive
capacity of reproduction may make the viewer forget that a photograph is also a
representation of the reality perceived by an artist. Reality is both, inner
and outer to the human being.

Another particularity, coming from the camera, is the integrity of the image
that it reproduces. Any artist from another discipline, that lets himself being
stimulated by the actual environment and attempt to interpret it, as poets and
painters for example, can not profit from this particularly. Because of the
slowness of execution of their medium compared to the spontaneity of the
camera, the events in progress will change. Also, human being see what they
want to see. What is perceived from reality is slanted by numerous
psychological factors from the subconscious. The camera, on the other hand,
record everything, including what one doesn't see, with an absolute
objectivity. Symbolic analyses of repetitive elements found in the work of a
photographer reveal new dimensions of the subconscious that could remain
unnoticed through other media.

Concern for care of truth and respect of reality gives to "the idea of
photography", its own possibilities of expression, separate from that of other
art. This way of thinking is noticeable in the work of photographers, such as
Henri Cartier-Bresson, Edward Weston, Ansel Adams, Arnold Newman, Robert Frank
or Richard Misrach,; to name just a few of the best known.

Is it possible, under the light of these reflections, to pursue the
understanding and to judge photograph, solely by the study of the photographic
image, without consideration of the artist's experiences with reality ? The
photographer expresses himself through reality and the photograph is the
reproduction of this reality that is stimulating him. Photography is the art of
reality and it is through this connection with the artist that one will
understand the message transcending a photographic image.
Robert  Fournier, 

Note 35.10      -< Developing stacks of prints simultaneously >-

>Does anyone have experience in developing groups of prints together. Obviously
>stacking prints in the developer slows development, but by how much? Does the 
>extended development time outweigh the benefits of developing them all 
>together? Is the job of rotating the stack a real pain? I can imagine it being
>difficult to get a nice steady rotation and even development if they start 
>sticking together.
A number of years back we used to routinely soup 8x10's this way in the
Air Force, and I have done it a number of times since. At times I could
handle 12 to 15 with no noticeable difference with any done separately.
A few points:
1.  The test strip or print MUST be fully developed. Don't pull it when
    it looks right and run the rest. Dev at least 2 minutes in trays
    that are at least the next print size larger, i.e., 11x14 for 8x10's.
2.  Expose for about 5 to 10% LESS for the stacked prints. Seems weird,
    but that's the way it works.
3.  Take ALL of the prints off of the easel and stack them to the side in
    exactly the same way, EXCEPT the last one, which you will turn around.
4.  Then fan the prints out, like you would if you were going to make up
    a bunch of tests out of separate stacks. This will make them much
    easier to grab.
5.  If you're right handed and work from left to right, you will need a
    dry area to the left of the dev tray where you can lay the stacked
    prints face down.
6.  Pick up the top print with your left hand and lay it in the dev tray
    EMULSION DOWN. Note: Do NOT get developer on your left hand yet.
    Push it "gently" down with your RIGHT HAND so it's completely
    submerged in the soup, jiggling your hand from side to side a little
    as you do it. At the same time, with your dry *left* hand, pick up
    another one and lay it in the tray, again face down. Continue until
    they are all in the tray.
7.  Put your left hand in the tray, getting it wet with developer,
    and GENTLY pick up the stack just enough to turn them over (this
    keeps most of the soup between the prints so they won't tend to
    stick as much), and start taking them separately from the bottom and
    putting them on top, submerging them as you go. Keep the same
    rhythm that you used when you put them in the tray and development
    should be very even.
8.  The inverted (or upside down picture-wise) print will be the first
    one in, so it should be the first out. Remember, you flipped the
    stack after putting them all in, so you want to remove the top one
    first. With your left hand, remove the top print from the dev and
    lay it, emulsion down again, in the stop or water tray, pushing down
    again with your right hand. Keep taking the top prints from the dev
    with your left hand and laying them in the stop or water trays, and
    then, with both hands wet with stop bath or water, gently turn the
   stack over again.
9.  While keeping the whole stack submerged, remove them from the stop
    bath tray one by one, with your left hand, from the top (as in #8)
    and put them in the fixer tray, submerging them again with the right
    hand. You will have to agitate them some in the fixer. Don't just
    let them sit, or they won't get complete fixing.
Note: If you don't squeeze the whole stack of prints when they are in
a solution, there will be enough fluid between them to prevent their
sticking together. Lay them in the fixer loose, and you should be able
to just sort of fan them out a couple times to help circulate fixer.
Also go through them a couple times like you did in the developer.
Sounds complicated, but I tried to cover a couple detail points, like not
grabbing dry prints with wet hands, or putting the stop bath hand in the
developer tray. For practice, try a stack of dry prints in dry trays
until you get the routine down better. If you do it like I explained,
prints sticking together shouldn't be a problem, and you'll soon be able
to do one a second into the developer, and keep that pace from that point
Have fun. Just be sure of the exposures. Having 10 prints all too light
or too dark is very aggravating.
John Thompson, Canton, Ohio 
> ... I've just finished reading AAs book The Print, in which he mentions using
> the factorial system for determining the development time for a number of
> prints stacked in the developer at the same time. Ie. the ratio of the
> emergence time to full development time is constant for a given developer,
> paper, temp etc etc ... Thus knowing this ratio (or factor) you can apply
> it to the first of a stack of prints and find the full developing time
> for that stack.
I have tried to use AA's factorial method, but have found that it is very 
difficult to compute for each print or batch. Visual inspection seems to 
work better. Most important is keeping the developer a constant temp. (I 
use an immersible aquarium heater in a water bath set to 68, or whatever). 
Make sure you have plenty of liquid in the tray for the session.
As far as processing prints in batches, I usually develop in groups of 2, 4, 6
or sometimes 8. More than this and you can't give enough attention to each
print. I may expose a bunch, say 10 or 12 at once, but process them in two or
three groups. It is important to get them in the tray quickly--one after
another--then start your timer. Dilute your developer so your total 
development time is 2 1/2 -3 minutes, that way 5 or 10 seconds between the
first and second print is not much of a factor. Put the prints in face down,
push the print down slightly with one hand and rock the tray to cover the back
of the print with developer (try to keep your hands dry at this point), and
put the next one in the same way. When you have all the prints in, go through
the stack once, pulling the bottom print and turning it over on the top of the
stack. Next, turn every other one over so that each group of two is back to
back. Now you only need to rotate half as many items, treating each back to
back group of two as one print. My experience shows that, although it may seem
that more prints=more development time, when you consider the extra agitation
each one gets, one must be careful not to OVER develop the prints! 
Back to back prints will stick together, but that actually helps you in this
case. The emulsion sides repel one another. When development is complete
quickly move each stack of two to the stop bath. seperate each stack so the
stop can get between each stack briefly. Move these groups of two into the
fix and go through the pile a couple of times. Separate each group of two so
the fixer can go between the two and replace any stop trapped between them. 
This all may sound complicated, but once you get the feel for it, it 
really does save a great deal of time.
Don Duncan, dduncan@polar.bowdoin.edu
Years ago, in another life, I worked as a darkroom assistant in a portrait
studio. My main purpose on the job was to turn (or "page") the prints in the
fixer, after the photographer had developed them in stacks and moved them into
the short stop.
I would say you could easily stack half a dozen prints. It helps to use trays
which are larger than you might normally use for single prints of the same
size, and with generous amounts of chemistry in each tray.
I used to put the exposed, dry prints in the developer tray one at a time,
quickly adding the additional prints one at a time. You will work out a rhythm
for this which permits you to "know" how much time there was between prints.
Once the prints are wet, they are less likely to stick together than when they
first go into the tray (which is why I don't put the whole stack in as a
You may see some unevenness in the initial development, but full developing
time will take care of it.
The bottom print is brought to the top of the stack, and turned face down.
Proceed through the stack until you reach the print on the bottom which is face
down. Now move that print to the top of the stack, face up. This permits you to
keep track of where you are in the stack.
When the first print has received full development, you can begin transferring
prints to the short stop, using the time interval between prints which matches
the insertion time.
~NORM, Norman Lenburg 

Note 35.11    -< Quick and easy "X" sync flash test for field use >-

> How can you easily and cheply tell if your electronic flash fires at the
> correct "X" synchronization?
Take a piece if phosphorescent glowing tape (sold at theatrical supply houses 
or through the Set Shop in NYC) and fill a 3x5 card with the light sensitive 
tape. Then, with the camera back off or open hold the taped paper against the
shutter gate on the film path. (Don't press too hard or you will interfere
with the shutter when it fires)
Set your shutter speed to the highest that your camera will synch. (1/125
or 1/250 or whatever). Now point the camera without a lens towards the flash 
and fire.
Quickly look at the card. The full rectangle of the film gate should be
glowing on the card. If it is a narrow rectangle then you are not synching
properly. This is a wonderful field trick and it really works.
gary@panix.com (Gary Gladstone) 

Note 35.12    -< How to compensate for exposure using extension tubes >-
>I just bought a set of extension tubes for my medium format camera. The short
>tube requires an exposure adjustment of 2X, the longer one 3X. In terms of
>exposure steps ie full f-stops OR shutter speeds, can someone explain to me how
>to adjust the exposure for each tube and when the tubes are used together. The
>camera has no internal meter, so everything has to be measured with a hand
>held meter.  
If the exposure increase is indicated as an exposure FACTOR, then 2X 
translates into increasing lens f-stop by one stop (doubling the amount of 
light), or decreasing the shutter time by one speed (doubling the light).
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
NORMAN LENBURG, Photo/Imaging Instructor, Madison Area Technical College, 3550 
Anderson St., Madison, WI 53704 USA (608) 246-6521 (voice) 608-246-6880 (fax)
There are probably manu ways to arrive at the answer you are looking for. I
would approach it from the point of view that a factor of 2 is one stop. I also
know that the log of 2 is .3   From here, if I need an exposure increase
associated with a factor of 2x I find the log of this factor and divide it by
.3 to find the increase in terms of stops.
For example: need an increase of 2x. The log of this factor is .3
                                      divided by .3 the answer is 1 stop
               "   "    "        3x  The log of this factor is .47
                                      divided by .3 the answer is 1.6 stops
now I if I place both tubes on the camera and use the two "factors" together, 
their "power" is multiplied. This is because if I need a factor of two and add 
a stop, and then I need (for some reason) another factor of 2 on top of that 
I'd open up another stop. The total would be two stops or a factor of 4. Thus 
factors get multipled. In the case you mention, 2 x 3 = 6 and thus to continue:
For example: need an increase of 4x. The log of this factor is .6
                                      divided by .3 the answer is 2 stops
               "   "     "       6x  The log of this factor is .78
                                      divided by .3 the answer is 2.6 stops
andy, andpph@rit.edu
One of the easiest and most versatile ways to make exposure compensations for
longer than normal lens-to-film distances, or "bellows extension", as it is
often called, is to use a variation of the inverse square law.
To do this, you will have to measure a standard distance from a point on the
lens to the back of the camera. This "standard distance" MUST be equal to the
focal length of the lens you will be using with the tubes. For example, you
mentioned MF, so I'll assume an 80 mm lens. Measure from the back of the
camera to a distance of 80 mm, and note that point on the lens. This is your
normal lens to film distance, or "old extension, as they sometimes say. Now
put on the longest tube you have, and measure that distance again. Let's say
it's 140 mm now. Note: the longest tube will give you the difference between
the two numbers. You actually use whatever will do the job.
The formula is: the new lens extension squared divided by the old lens
extension squared, or 140 squared divided by 80 squared, or 19600 divided by
6400, or 3.06. "3" is certainly close enough. That translates to a one and
one half increase in exposure. So if the meter says shoot at f/11, it's one
stop, or twice the exposure, to f/8, and if you want twice more, or four times
altogether, it would be f/5.6. You want a point in between 5.6 and 8 to equal
a three times increase.
This will become second nature in no time. The nice thing about it is that it
works for 35mm cameras and normal lenses, or wide angle or telephoto lenses, or
4 by 5 cameras with the bellows racked out 3 miles, or what ever else you may
be working with. You can make extension tubes of old paper towel tubes, and it
will work flawlessly. It works for my Robertson Meteorite copy camera, which
takes up to a 15 by 18 inch negative. And it works exactly the same for every
concievable situation.
Summary: take the new focal length of the lens, or the new extension, square
it, (or multiply it by itself if your calculator doesn't have an x squared
key), and divide that by the old focal length, or *actual* focal length,
squared. That is your exposure factor. Increase exposure that much, and you
can't miss. Works every time, unless you really go overboard and start getting
into reciprocity failure.
Math, yes, but if you want to do some serious closeup work without in camera
meters, it's a necessity, especially for slides.
John Thompson, Canton, Ohio  
Oh, gosh, the information you're getting is well intentioned but unforunately
NOT wholly correct!  Or in some cases unnecessarily complex. If you are using a
plain extension tube (absolutely no lens elements in it) the amount of exposure
adjustment is dependent upon BOTH the length of the extension tube AND the
focal length of the lens being used with it!!!   In other words, using a 25mm
extension tube with a 50mm lens is a different exposure adjustment than using
the same 25mm tube with a 200mm lens.
You can use this table for your calculation of exposure adjustment. 
     Extension / focal length               Exposure increase in EV
                                                             or f/stops
      1/10 - 1/5                                      1/2
      1/4 - 1/3                                      1
      1/2                                            1.5
      1                                              2
      1.5                                            2.5
      2                                              3  
If you're into the real math, you can calculate  the Exposure Factor (not the
same thing as exposure increase in the above table...Exposure Factor 4 =
exposure increase of 2 f/stops, for example).
       EF = (Magnifaction+1)^2
  where Manfication = Extension / Focal Length.  We can convert both into a
single equation for simplicity:
       EF = ((Extension / Focal Length)+1)^2
   Got that? 
--Wilt, WiltW@aol.com
Following considerations has been condensed from a Nikon Sales Manual 
(Close-Up Equipment):
"...As the lens is moved further away from the camera body, you are able 
to focus closer. To determine the amount of extension needed to produce 
a certain reproduction ratio, this equation can be used:
         EXT=RR x FL   where EXT is the amount of extension needed, RR     
                       is the reproduction ratio, and FL is the Focal      
                       Length of the lens in mm.
Suppose you are using a normal 50 mm lens and want to shoot at 1x 
magnification, how much extension will be needed? By substituting into 
the equation, we have:
         EXT=RR x FL
            = 1 x 50 = 50 mm of extension
From the equation, it becomes apparent that the shorter the focal 
length,the less the extension needed to produce the same magnification.
Carrying it one step further, with a set amount of extension, the 
shorter the focal lenght, the greater the magnification produced.
Therefore, to obtain the greatest possible reproduction ratios when 
using extension rings or a bellows unit, use wideangle lenses.
Another fact : As the lens is extended away from the camera,the actual 
amount of light striking the film is reduced, thereby requiring an 
increase in exposure. A handy formula for finding the exposure factor 
    EF=(1+RR)(1+RR) where EF is the exposure factor and RR is the          
                    reproduction ratio.
If we are shooting at 1x magnification, let's see what the Exposure 
Factor would be:
    EF=(1+RR)(1+RR) = (1+1)(1+1) = 2 x 2 = 4
Thus, the Exposure Factor is 4. To find the amount of exposure increase, 
you multiply the original shutter speed by the exposure factor to get 
the corrected shutter speed. For example, suppose the original shutter 
speed was 1/8 sec.. Multiplying it by 4, we have:
   1/8 x 4 = 4/8 or 1/2
So, 1/2 sec. is the correct shutter speed to use.
An alternate method is to use the foolowing chart to determine the 
number of f/stops of exposure increase needed:
Exposure factor      2    3    4    6    8    12    16    24    32      
Increase in f/stops  1 1-1/2   2  2-1/2  3   3-1/2   4   4-1/2  5          
With an exposure factor of 4, it's necessary to open up the lens by 2 
f/stops, (i.e., from f/8 to f/4). 
The above method to get the proper exposure factor is really valid for 
symmetrical lenses.
Whwn you use asymmetrical lenses, the difference in pupillary 
magnification must be taken into consideration to establish the correct 
exposure. The pupillary magnification is the ratio of the exit pupil 
diameter to that of the entrance pupil. If "P" represents the pupillary 
magnification, the followig formula applies:
EF= (1+ 1/P.RR)(1+ 1/P.RR) (when the lens is mounted in normal position) 
When the lens is mounted in reverse, use:
EF= (1/P + RR)(1/P +RR)
Values of 1/P vary depending on the lens used, as below:
(Please have in mind following chart is for nikkor lenses)
1/P       0.3   0.4    0.6    0.7     0.9     1.0    1.2    1.6     2.2
       35/1.4  20/4   28/2.8  35/2.8  50/1.8  45/2.8  85/2  135/2  200/4
       58/1.2  24/2   28/3.5          50/2                  135/2.8
       Noct    24/2.8  35/2           105/4   55/3.5        135/3.5  
Lenses         28/2   35/2.8          Micro   Micro         180/2.8
               28/4    PC                     105/2.5   
                PC    50/1.4
I understand that most or all of the above facts are well known  by you, but I
believe that, perhaps, the clear explanations given by  Nikon could be of help
for other people . Good shooting!
JORGE ROBERTO MOURE, administ@jmoure.recom.edu.ar

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