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David A. Borkholder, PhD
Associate Professor Electrical Engineering
Associate Professor Microsystems Engineering

Dr.Borkholder received the BS degree in Microelectronic Engineering from Rochester Institute of Technology, and the MS and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. He has trained at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole on the biology of the inner ear.

Dr. Borkholder has been on the faculty at RIT since 2004, currently as an Associate Professor in the departments of Electrical Engineering and Microsystems Engineering. He holds adjunct appointments with the University of Rochester departments of Otolaryngology and Biomedical Engineering. His laboratory works on a variety of projects in MEMs, medical devices, integrated electronics, and auditory dysfunction, with a strong focus on therapy directed Microsystems and sensors. Current research projects include implantable microsystems for intra-cochlear drug delivery (NIH NIDCD), a soldier worn blast dosimetry system (DARPA), a user guided assistive listening system (NSF) and several other physiological sensors with industrial support. He teaches courses in analog electronics, electrophysiology, biomedical sensors, and product innovation, and played a key role in the development of the biomedical engineering option within the EE department. He co-led the effort to establish the engineering ethics curriculum at RIT which is interwoven throughout the standard five year curriculum. He has published numerous articles in technical, educational, and medical literature and holds several patents related to cell-based biosensors and dna analysis.

Prior to joining RIT, Dr. Borkholder served as the Director of Hardware Engineering at ZONARE Medical Systems, Inc. where he led electronics and ASIC development for a portable premium quality ultrasound system. At Cepheid, he served as the Director of Electronic Systems and Technical Lead, developing automated systems for dna extraction and analysis. His doctoral work focused on cell based biosensors using microelectrodes for chemical warfare agent detection and pharmaceutical screening.

Dr. Borkholder is an avid scuba diver, huntsman, and malt fermentation specialist.


Education

  • Ph.D., Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 1999 Thesis: Cell Based Biosensors using Microelectrodes
  • M.S., Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 1994
  • B.S. Microelectronic Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, 1992
  • Biology of the Inner Ear: Experimental and Analytical Approaches, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, 2007

Awards and Honors

  • Senior Member, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • United States Air Force Laboratory Graduate Fellowship
  • Rochester Engineering Society David Fergusson Scholarship
  • Nathaniel Rochester Society Scholarship
  • RIT Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Scholarship
  • Frank Horton Scholarship
  • Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Phi Kappa Phi Honor Societies

Courses Taught


Professional Societies

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
  • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS)
  • American Association for Engineering Education (ASEE)
  • Association for Research in Otolaryngology (ARO)
  • Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES)

Professional Activities

  • DARPA Defense Sciences Research Council (DSRC) Fellow
  • Grant review: National Institutes of Health Neurotech/Engineering Special Emphasis Panel
  • Grant review: Defense Threat Reduction Agency
  • Grant review: National Science Foundation - Research to Aid People with Disabilities
  • Grant review: Office of Naval Research Force Health Protection
  • Referee, IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
  • Referee, Journal Neural Engineering
  • Referee, Nanomedicine
  • Referee, Neuroscience
  • Referee, Therapeutic Delivery
  • Referee, Medical Science Monitor

Patents

  • US Patent 6,942,971, September 13, 2005, "Apparatus for Analysis of a Nucleic Acid Amplification Reaction," McMillan, W.A., Christel, L.A., Borkholder, D.A., and Young, S.J.
  • US Patent 6,911,327, June 28, 2005, "Method for Quantitative Analysis of a Nucleic Acid Amplification Reaction," McMillan, W.A., Christel, L.A., Borkholder, D.A., and Young, S.J.
  • US Patent 6,783,934, August 31, 2004, "Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Reaction," McMillan, W.A., Christel, L.A., Borkholder, D.A., and Young, S.J.
  • US Patent 6,713,297, March 30, 2004, "Apparatus for Quantitative Analysis of a nucleic acid amplification reaction," McMillan, W.A., Christel, L.A., Borkholder, D.A., and Young, S.J.
  • US Patent 6,377,057, Apr 23, 2002, "Classification of Biological Agents According to the Spectral Density Signature of Evoked Changes in Cellular Electric Potential," Borkholder, D.A.
  • US Patent 6,051,422, April 18, 2000, "Hybrid Biosensors," Kovacs, G.T.A and Borkholder, D.A.
  • US Patent 5,981,268, November 9, 1999, "Hybrid Biosensors," Kovacs, G.T.A and Borkholder, D.A.

Original Scientific Articles (Peer Reviewed)

  • Johnson, D.G, Frisina, R.D, Borkholder, D.A., "In-Plane Biocompatible Microfluidic Interconnects for Implantable Microsystems," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 58(4):943-948 (2011).
  • Borkholder, D.A., Xiaoxia Zhu, Brad T. Hyatt, Alfredo S. Archilla, William J. Livingston III, and Robert D. Frisina, "Murine intracochlear drug delivery: Reducing concentration gradients within the cochlea," Hearing Research, 268(1-2):2-11 (2010).
  • Borkholder,D.A."State-of-the-art mechanisms of drug delivery," Current Opinions in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, 16:472-477 (2008).
  • Raisi, F., Belgrader, P., Borkholder, D. A., Herr, A. E., Kintz, G. J., Pourhamadi, F., Taylor, M. T., and Northrup, M. A., "Microchip Isoelectric Focusing Using a Miniature Scanning Detection System," Electrophoresis, 22(11):2291-2295 (2001).
  • Belgrader, P., Okuzumi, M., Pourahmadi, F., Borkholder, D.A., and Northrup, M.A., "A Microfluidic Cartridge to Prepare Spores for PCR Analysis," Biosensors & Bioelectronics 14:849-852 (2000).
  • Pancrazio, J.J., Whelan, J. P., Borkholder, D.A., Ma, W. and Stenger, D.A., "Development and Application of Cell-Based Biosensors," Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 27:697–711 (1999).
  • Pancrazio, J.J., Bey, P.P. Jr., Cuttino, D.S., Kusel, J.K., Borkholder, D.A., Shaffer, K.M., Kovacs, G.T.A. and Stenger, D.A., "Portable Cell-Based Biosensor System for Toxin Detection," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 53(3):179-185 (1998).
  • Pancrazio J.J., Bey, P.P.Jr., Loloee, A., Manne, S., Chao, H.C., Howard, L.L., Gosney, W.M., Borkholder, D.A., Kovacs, G.T.A., Manos, P., Cuttino, D.S. and Stenger, D.A., "Description and Demonstration of a CMOS Amplifier-Based-System with Measurement and Stimulation Capability for Bioelectrical Signal Transduction," Biosensors and Bioelectronics 13:971-979 (1998).
  • Jung, D.R., Cuttino, D.S., Pancrazio, J.J., Manos, P., Cluster, T., Sathanoori, R.S., Aloi, L.E., Coulombe, M.G., Bey, P., Czarnaski, M.A., Borkholder, D.A., Kovacs, G.T.A., Stenger, D.A. and Hickman, J.J., "Cell-based Sensor Microelectrode Array Characterized by Imaging X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Impedance Measurements, and Extracellular Recordings," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 16(3):1183-1188 (1998).
  • Borkholder, D., Bao, J., Maluf, N., Perl, E., and Kovacs, G., "Microelectrode Arrays for Stimulation of Neural Slice Preparations," Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 77:61-66 (1997).
  • Kewley, D.T., Hills, M.D., Borkholder, D.A., Opris, I.E., Maluf, N.I., Storment, C.W., Bower, J.M. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Plasma-Etched Neural Probes," Sensors and Actuators: A Physical, 58:27-35, (1997).
  • Borkholder, D., Bao, J., Maluf, N., Perl, E. and Kovacs, G., "Microelectrode Arrays for Stimulation of Neural Slice Preparations," Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 24, Supplement 1, p. S-68, Oct. (1996).
  • Storment, C.W., Borkholder, D.A., Westerlind, V., Suh, J.W., Maluf, N.I. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Flexible, Dry-Released Process for Aluminum Electrostatic Actuators," IEEE J. Microelectromechanical Systems, Sept. (1994).
  • Owen, G., Borkholder, D.A., Knorr, C., Markle, D.A. and Pease, R.F.W., "Quarter-Micron Lithography with a Gapped Markle-Dyson System," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 12(6):3809-3813 (1994).

Refereed Conference Papers / Presentations

  • Johnson DG, Waldron MJ, Frisina RD, Borkholder DA, "Implantable Micropump Technologies for Murine Intracochlea Infusions," Proceedings of the 32nd Annual International conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Aug 31-Sept4 (2010).
  • Czernikowski, R.S., Bailey, M.B., Borkholder, D.A., Marshall, M.M., Nye, A.H., and Reeve, N.R., "RIT’s Engineering Honors Program: Product Innovation in a Global Economy," Proceedings of the 37th Annual ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Milwaukee, WI, October 10-13 (2007).
  • Johnson, D.G., Zhou, X.X., Frisina, R.D., and Borkholder, D.A., "Micro-Molded Cannulae for Intracochlear Infusions in Small Rodents," Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Annual Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference, Lyons, France, August 23-26 (2007).
  • Herr, A. E., Molho, J. I., Bharadwaj, R., Santiago, J. G., Kenny, T. W., Borkholder, D. A., and Northrup, M. A., "Miniaturized Isoelectric Focusing (mIEF) as a Component of a Multi-Dimensional Microfluidic System," mTAS 2001 – Fifth International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems, Monterey, CA, October 21-25 (2001)
  • A.E. Herr, J.I. Molho, J.G. Santiago, T.W. Kenny, D.A. Borkholder, G.J. Kintz, P. Belgrader, M.A. Northrup. "Miniaturized Capillary Isoelectric Focusing (cIEF): Towards a Portable High-Speed Separation Method" The 4th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences: uTAS2000, Enschede, The Netherlands, pp. 367-370 (2000).
  • A.E. Herr, J.I. Molho, J.G. Santiago, T.W. Kenny, D.A. Borkholder, G.J. Kintz, P. Belgrader, M.A. Northrup. "Investigation of a Miniaturized Capillary Isoelectric Focusing (cIEF) System Using a Full-Field Detection Approach" Hilton Head 2000: Solid-State Sensor & Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head, South Carolina, pp.115-119.(2000)
  • A.E. Herr, J. Mikkelsen, J.G. Santiago, T.W. Kenny, D.A. Borkholder, M.A. Northrup. "Electroosmotic Flow Suppression and the Implications for a Miniaturized Full-Field Detection Approach to Capillary Isoelectric Focusing," IMECE 2000 Microfluidics Symposium, 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, p.515-8 (2000)
  • Borkholder, D.A., DeBusschere, B.D. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Hybrid Biosensors: Harnessing Living Tissues for Chem/Bio Warfare Agent Detection," Proceedings of the Government Microcircuit Applications Conference (GOMAC), March 8-11 (1999).
  • DeBusschere, B. D., Borkholder, D. A. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "System Requirements for a Portable Cell Based Sensor," Proceedings of the UTAS '98 Workshop, Banff, Canada, 13-16 October, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 443-446 (1998).
  • DeBusschere, B. D., Borkholder, D. A. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Design of an Integrated Silicon-PDMS Cell Cartridge," Technical digest of the 1998 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, 6/7-6/11, Transducer Research Foundation, Cleveland, pp. 358-362 (1998).
  • Borkholder, D.A., DeBusschere, B.D., and Kovacs, G.T.A., "An Approach to the Classification of Unknown Biological Agents with Cell-based Sensors," Technical digest of the 1998 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, 6/7-6/11, Transducer Research Foundation, Cleveland, pp. 178-82 (1998).
  • Borkholder, D.A., Opris, I.E., Maluf, N.I. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Planar Electrode Array Systems for Neural Recording and Impedance Measurements," Conference Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 10/31-11/3/96, IEEE (1996).
  • Borkholder, D.A., Maluf, N.I. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Impedance Imaging for Hybrid Biosensor Applications," Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, pp. 156 - 160, June 2-6 (1996).
  • Kewley, D.T., Hills, M.D., Borkholder, D.A., Opris, I.E., Maluf, N.I., Storment, C.W., Bower, J.M. and Kovacs, G.T.A., "Plasma-Etched Neural Probes," Technical digest of the 1996 Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, pp. 266-271, June 2-6 (1996).
  • Storment, C.W., Borkholder, D.A., Westerlind, V.A., Maluf, N.I. and Kovacs, G.T.A.. "Dry-Released Process for Aluminum Electrostatic Actuators," Technical Digest of the Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, pp. 95-98, June 13-16 (1994).
  • Grenville, A., Owen, G., Robinson, J., Borkholder, D., Frank, C., Pease, F. and Markle, D., "Masks for Markle-Dyson Optics," Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2087:2-9 (1994).

Published Abstracts

  • Gladstone, M., Zhu, X., Luebke, A., Frisina, R.D., Borkholder, D.A., "Using micro-Computed Tomography to Assess Transport Parameters through Fluid Spaces of the Cochlea." Biomedical Engineering Society National Conference, University of Texas at Austin, October 6-9, (2010).
  • Johnson DG, Waldron MJ, Frisina RD, Borkholder DA, "Rodent Intracochlear Infusion Systems: Technology Advances for Implantable Micropumps," Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter meeting, Feb (2010).
  • Zhu XX, Hyatt B, Frisina RD, Borkholder DA, "Flow Rate as a parameter for reducing concentration gradients in murine intracochlear infusion, Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter meeting, Feb (2010).
  • Livingston, W.J., Zhu, X.X., Archilla, A.S., Frisina, R.D., Borkholder, D.A., "Intracochlear Infusions: A Surgical Approach to Reduce Concentration Gradients within the Cochlea," Association for Research inOtolaryngology Midwinter meeting, Feb (2009).
  • Hyatt, B.T., Archilla, A.S., Livingston, W.J., Zhu, X.X., Frisina, R.D., Borkholder, D.A., "Intracochlear Drug Delivery in the Mouse: Correlation of Simulated Concentration Gradients with Shifts in Measured Auditory Response," Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter meeting, Feb (2009).
  • Johnson, D.G., Zhu, X., Frisina, R.D. and Borkholder, D.A., "Engineered Interface for Intracochlear Infusions in Small Rodents," ARO 2007 – 30th Annual Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, Denver, CO, February 10-15 (2007).

Invited Talks

  • Borkholder, D.A., "Micromachined Structures for Biological Studies," Invited talk, American Medical Writers Association Asilomar 2000 workshop, March 19-23 (2000).