Steven Landau, President of Touch Graphics
Karen Gourgey, Director of Baruch College Computer Center for Visually Impaired People
Researchers have long understood the value of tactile presentation of pictures, maps and diagrams for readers who are blind or otherwise visually impaired (Edman, 1992). However, some practicalities have always limited the usefulness and appeal of these materials. It is often difficult for a blind individual to make sense of tactile shapes and textures without some extra information to confirm or augment what has been touched (Kennedy, Tobias & Nichols, 1991). Labeling a drawing with Braille is one way to accomplish this, but since Braille tags must be large and have plenty of blank space around them to be legible, they are not ideal for use with fairly complex or graphically rich images. Also, reliance on Braille labeling restricts the usefulness of tactile graphics to those blind or visually impaired persons who are competent Braille readers, a lamentably small population.
In order to enrich the tactile graphic experience and to allow for a broader range of users, products like NOMAD have been created. NOMAD was developed by Dr. Don Parkes of the University of New South Wales, and was first brought to market in 1989 (Parkes, 1994). When connected to a computer, NOMAD promised to enhance the tactile experience by allowing a user to view pictures, graphs, diagrams etc, and then to press on various features to hear descriptions, labels and other explanatory audio material. Further, the NOMAD aspired to offer the kind of multi-media, interactive experiences that have exploded on the scene in visual computing.
Several factors, however, have always prevented the NOMAD system from being widely adopted. Resolution of the touch-sensitive surface is low, so precise correspondence of graphic images and audio tags is difficult to achieve. Speech is synthetically produced, so it is not as clear and user friendly as pre-recorded human speech that is common in mainstream CD ROMs. Perhaps most importantly, high quality interactive programming and tactile media was not independently produced in sufficient quantities to justify the hardware investment, as was envisioned by the NOMAD creators.
Given the immense promise of audio-tactile strategies to open interactive learning and entertainment to those whose vision problems preclude their use of a mouse or a video monitor, Touch Graphics was established in 1997. This for-profit company, created in cooperation with Baruch Colleges Computer Center for Visually Impaired People, has successfully competed for research and development funds through the Small Business Innovation Research programs at the US Department of Education and the National Science Foundation. The work has led, thus far, to the creation of a prototype Talking Tactile Tablet (TTT) and three interactive programs for use with the device.
The hardware component of the TTT system is an extremely simple, durable and inexpensive easel (fig. 1) for holding tactile graphic sheets motionless against a high-resolution touch-sensitive surface. A users finger pressure is transmitted through a variety of flexible tactile graphic overlays to this surface, which is a standard hardened-glass touch screen, typically used in conjunction with a video monitor for ATMs and other applications. The TTT device is connected to a host computer by a single cable that is plugged into the USB port on a Macintosh or Windows-based computer. Alternatively, a completely free-standing version (fig. 2) has been created, in which the tablet is set into a docking station that incorporates a Single Board Computer, a hard disk drive, audio system, and connections to peripheral devices. In both cases, the computer interprets the users presses on the tactile graphic overlay sheet in exactly the same way that it does when a mouse is clicked while the cursor is over a particular region, icon or other object on a video screen. With appropriate software, the system promises to open the world of point and click computing to blind and visually impaired users.
Three software titles have been prepared for use with the Talking Tactile Tablet. Each consists of a collection of tactile overlay sheets and a CD ROM with program files. The user places the CD in the computers drive, and starts a generic launcher program that is common to every existing and future application developed for the system. A human-voice narrator leads the user through the set up process, and audio confirmation is provided as each step is successfully completed. An expert mode is available that bypasses all but the essential instructions and audio cues; however, a first time user is presented with a complete description of the device and its features, and is led in a step-by-step fashion through the process of launching the application. For experts and beginners, the start-up sequence is as follows:
Touch Graphics has produced the following applications for use with the Talking Tactile Tablet:
Additional applications for the TTT system are under consideration now, including:
With the TTT System, the developers aspire to promulgate a uniform strategy for tactile graphic-based interactive multimedia applications. We are confident that the low cost of the system and the range of professionally-produced software titles already available will demonstrate to interested individuals, schools, libraries and community facilities that an investment in the hardware component is justified . As we create a critical mass of professionally produced audio-tactile media, we expect to assure customers that future applications, conforming to the same standards, will become available to augment their collections. This is the same strategy that has proven successful in mainstream computing, such as in the emergence of the Windows Graphical User Interface as a global standard.
The developers look forward to a time when blind and visually impaired people have the same opportunities for education, entertainment, and camaraderie that the sighted world enjoys through the introduction of accessible computerized multimedia materials.
Fig. 1: The Talking Tactile Tablet, shown connected to a host notebook computer, with an assortment of Tactile Overlays. The device is about 15 inches wide, 12 inches deep and ½ thick. A wire emerges from the left side of the unit, and there is a tab for lifting the hinged frame along the front edge.
Fig. 2: The Talking Tactile Computer with Docking Station. The same as fig 1, except the device rests on a rectangular unit, 16 inches wide, 13 inches deep and 2 ½ inches high, with a floppy disk drive and stereo speakers on the front edge, and plugs for peripheral devices on the right side.
Fig. 3: The Match Game overlay with labels showing the functions of each element. The graphic shows the standard Tactile Graphic User interface, which includes the three set up dots in the corners; the ID Strip running along the top edge, the control buttons in the upper right corner and a numerical keypad along the right side. Within the dotted line box of the workspace are the Match Game board and icons that can be pressed to hear the players scores.
Fig. 4: A sample plate from the coordinate geometry curriculum, labels showing functions of each element. The standard Tactile Graphic User Interface is identical to that described for the Match Game (see Fig. 3, above). Within the dotted box of the workspace is the coordinate grid, with bumpy lines showing the x and y axes. A triangle is represented to demonstrate the Pythagorean Theorem. Each vertex of the triangle is labeled, as are the individual line segments.
Fig. 5: The Africa continent plate from the Talking Tactile Atlas of World Maps with explanatory labels.
 Projected cost of the TTT, is $400. Applications, depending on complexity and number of tactile overlays included, will cost between $100 and $200 each.
Parkes, D. (1994). Audio tactile systems for designing and learning complex environments as a vision impaired person: Static and dynamic spatial information access. In J. Steele and J. G. Hedberg (eds), Learning Environment Technology: Selected papers from LETA 94, 219-223. Canberra: AJET Publications.
Kennedy, John, Gabias, Paul & Nicholls, Andrea. Tactile Pictures. In M. Heller and W. Schiff (eds), The Psychology of Touch, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey. 1991
Edman, Polly K. Tactile Graphics. New York: American Foundation for the Blind. 1991.
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