FAQ or Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Section 15
This is a file containing answers, tips, hints and guidelines associated
with recurring questions asked by photographers. If you would like to
add a tidbit of knowledge to this list just send it to ANDPPH@rit.edu
who will gladly add it to this collection.
These files are available in SECTIONS.
This is Section 15 and its contents are listed below.
15.01 -< Make Slides from Negatives using Kodak SO-279 >-
15.02 -< What is Angle of View of any Lens on any Camera? >-
15.03 -< Color Crossover, Color Conversion and Temperature >-
15.04 -< 5 vs. 7 sprocket format stereo cameras >-
15.05 -< Several observations about Kodak B&W IR film >-
15.06 -< Precision Pinhole Parts for Pinhole Photographers >-
15.07 -< Reversal Processing of Black and White paper >-
15.08 -< Making POLAROID Color Transfer Prints >-
15.09 -< Sample Model Release >-
Note 15.01 -< Make Slides from Negatives using Kodak SO-279 >-
SLIDES FROM NEGATIVES USING SO-279, Vericolor Slide Film a negative working
copy film designed without orange mask for making slides from color negatives.
From: IN%"firstname.lastname@example.org" 23-FEB-1993 01:13:48.62
Subj: RE: More questions...SO-279, or slides from negatives
I have a lot of color negatives I'd like to turn into slides, so naturally my
attention turned towards Kodak's Vericolor Slide Film SO-279. I noticed you
posted the following on rec.photo and wonder if you could assist further.
> If you already own a color enlarger then it may be possible to convert it to
> serve as a light source for a copying set-up. Once I bought a color head for a
> 35mm Durst enlarger from Helix in Chicago for about $ 25 or 40 (don't recall
> exact price... they were "dumping" them due to overstock) and this has served
> the purpose of adjusting the color quality of the copies very well.
> This is possibly cheaper and more flexible than buying a set of CC filters.
I need some advice, if I may not be troubling you too much..
I have a cheap enlarger(accepts color filters though it's a B&W). So I think I
can manage to convert it to a decent light source. I also have a Canon EOS Elan
28-70 II lens & a good tripod. What else do I need to make slide/neg duplicates?
I guess another lens to get into 1:1 macro range? How do I proceed to make
duplicates? - how do I make sure that the slide/neg is exactly in the centre &
is perfectly parallel to the film plane?? Thanks in advance..
email : email@example.com
.................................. reply ...................................
From: RITVAX::ANDPPH 23-FEB-1993 22:48:40.09
Subj: RE: More questions...SO-279, or slides from negatives
...actually if you have the enlarger you already have the appropriate lens. The
one that is fitted to the enlarger! It will generally do quite well. You should
be able to project the image into the Elan (remove the lens you have on it now)
and see a pretty bright image on your viewfinder screen. Depending on enlarger
you may be able to the enlarger so it is aimed horizontally instead of
vertically (if possible reverse head orientation on post and use baseboard to
kind of hold enlarger steady) and then mounting camera on tripod position at
right distance for about 1:1 magnification.
If the lens can not be moved far enough from negative and lens has a Leica
thread, (most enlargers do) get a short Leica extension tube and attach lens to
it to get extra extension.
The Elan can probably be set to give you automatic exposure time control based
on a "stopped down" metering mode. You simply need to work out what effective
exposure index you would key into the camera for the speed of the Vericolor
Slide film you will be using. This typically is about ISO 6 or so. Pretty slow!
>How do I proceed to make dulicates? - how do I make sure that the slide/neg is
>exactly in the centre & is perfectly parallel to the film plane??
Well, "perfectly" is questionable. Approximately often will work just as well
and you will have to use some ingenuity here. Since you can see the image on
the groundglass (in the viewfinder) if the image is sharp side to side you have
things pretty much under control. Using a slightly smaller than margest opening
will help with sharpness but shape may be a bit (probably not noticeable
To make duplicates you insert the approximate filter pack made up with
recommended Color Compensating (located between copy film and original film) or
Color Printing (located between light source and original film) filters
according to manufacturer's recommendations. If none given I'd start with about
40Y and 20M and an ISO in camera of as low as possible. Then I'd run a series
of exposure variations goving less than recommended exposure in 1 stop
increments BUT ALSO a series where the exposure is even longer than the time
suggested by the meter at that ISO. May have to do these things manually.
Keeping good notes is essential. After processing and having film returned
uncut so frame identification is simplified I'd go looking for a slide that has
good density. Once this is accomplished then I'd go looking for proper color as
well. If this does not exist then I'd take the best slide in terms of density
and then make another test at that "exposure" level but change the filters in
such a manner as to correct the color balance of the resulting slide.
If the slides are too red, the add red to the basic filter pack, if too blue
add blue (or cyan and magenta together), if too magenta add magenta. This is
like color printing except that you end up with transparent prints!
hope this helps,
From: IN%"firstname.lastname@example.org" 25-FEB-1993 18:38:36.01
Subj: RE: More questions...SO-279, or slides from negatives
Your reply was very useful & it works!!!
Thanks a lot! I could have never guessed that I don't need any more equipment!
Thank you again..
Note 15.02 -< What is Angle of View of any Lens on any Camera? >-
I'd like to know whether there exists a formula (or second best, a conversion
table) for calculating the angle of view given a focal length, and vice versa
(e.g. given a 300mm lens, 8.1 degrees is correct....I think)
The formula is:
The angle of view for any given film dimension is equal to 2 times the angle
whose tangent is equal to the film dimension in question divided by 2 times the
this is for a non-distorting lens that is a "regular" lens not a fisheye.
-1 / film dimension\ 43
let's see < of view = < tan |---------------| -------- = .071
\ 2 f / 2 x 300
angle whose tan = .071 = 4.09 x 2 = 8.18
pretty close, eh?
BTW, 35 mm format dimensions are 24mm x 36mm and the diagonal is 43mm (or 44).
Note 15.03 -< Color Crossover, Color Conversion and Temperature >-
THIS IS A DISCUSSION FROM PHOTO-L ON THE TOPIC OF COLOR CROSSOVER and COLOR
TEMPERATURE AND COLOR CONVERSION FILTERS TO MATCH FILM TO LIGHT SOURCES
Is there anyone out there that can explain to me better than an average
textbook the meaning of "color crossover" as a result of reciprocity
failure of color film. I know that there is a color cast, and that the
color in the highlights somehow becomes the color of the shadows, and I
know that contrast is affected, but I really am not 100% clear on the whole
Subj: RE: Color CrossOver
I'll make a pass at explaining color crossover, assuming that by 'better'
you mean simpler, easier to understand, etc.
Basically, all color films are designed such that there are three emulsion
layers sensitive to three complimentary light colors (red, green & blue;
or cyan, yellow & magenta). One notable exception is Fuji Reala, which has
four emulsions, but don't worry about Reala for the moment. Ideally, the
three emulsion layers should all be insensitive to light outside their
prescribed color range, but nothing's perfect. The erroneous exposure
resulting from this imperfection is called color crossover. In other words,
the red layer reacts to some blue and/or green light, the green layer reacts
to red and/or blue, and so on. Really bad color crossover is a color printer's
worst nightmare. You'll wind up making test print after test print, adjusting
color in all directions and never get an entirely satisfactory
print. Of course, in extreme long exposure resulting in crossover, maybe
the weird color is what you want for an artistic effect.
From: SFAE-AR-HIP-SY Stephen Wall
>Is there anyone out there that can explain to me better than an average
>textbook the meaning of "color crossover" as a result of reciprocity
>failure of color film.
Well, after I composed my reply appended below I reread your plea for "better
than the average _textbook_" and on looking at the stuff I put together it
looks like your average textbook reply, so now I am not sure..... :-)
This is what I understand cross-over means when talking about color systems.
*+*.+*+. CASE 1
^ *+. Desired Outcome. No color casts.
E *+. Response of the three color layers
N *+. is superimposed on each other
I *+. *, +, . = color layers
Log Exposure --->
*+*.+ +. CASE 2
* +. One layer is slower than the rest
* +. but has the same contrast as the others
* +. A color cast will be shown everywhere
* +. With negative color films this can be
* +. compensated for at the printing stage.
* +. (curves for neg materials are reversed)
* +. With transparency materials this can be
* +. compensated for at the taking stage and
* +. partially at the viewing stage
Cause of something like this could be shooting under incorrect lighting, using
a filter on the camera, age, maybe processing, maybe reciprocity effect.
*+.*+. +. +. CASE 3
* +. One layer has different contrast than the rest
* +. causing its its curve to "cross over" in
* +. the midtone regions. Actually, cross-over does
* +. not need to happen in midtones... it could
*+. happen anywhere. In this case it is evidenced
*+. by a color cast showing in the shadows and a
*+. complementary color cast on the highlights
+. +. +.*+.*+.
Cause of something like this could be processing error, reciprocity failure,
storage effect, or celestial intervention.
This is an introductory attempt at trying to answer the question about
cross-over. I decided to post this in hopes that I would get some follow up
help in terms of verbal descriptions to go along with these pictorial
representations since at this time I do not have the time to go much beyond
this. I look forward to critiques and additional comments. Have fun!
From: "Andrew Davidhazy"
Subject: Color Conversion Problem
I left a message a while back regarding filters needed while shooting outdoor f
ilm under tungsten lights (100 Watt). Why would i need to use a 82b aND 80a fil
ter, and not just a 82b?
Subj: Color Conversion Question
Hi Wayne, re: your question on color conversion this prompted me to look into
Kodak's B-3 book on Filters for Scientific and Technical uses.
What I found is that the 100 watt lamp burns at about 2900 K and you want
to convert this to 5500 K. If each of these is assigned it's appropriate Mired
value, then you want to go from about 345 to 182 or a total shift of - 163
mireds. A Mired is simply the K value divided into 1,000,000, but this is
The 80A filter has a "power"of - 131 mireds which is not good enough. You need
some more blue ( which is what the " - " sign implies ) to the extent of
another - 32 mireds. This is supplied by the 82B.
You could use other filters for similar results. A 80B plus a 80D is close at
168 mireds. Two 80C filters are also very close at 162 mireds.
Another way to say all this would be that the 80A gets you from 3200 to 5500 K
but you first need to get from 2900 to 3200 and this is done with the 82B.
There is no single filter listed by Kodak that provides 2900 to 5500 correction
in one step.
BTW, the price for doing this is almost 3 stops. It is much more efficient to
use indoor balanced film outdoors than the other way around.
From: "Andrew Davidhazy"
Subj: Tungsten Lamp filtration
>I left a message a while back regarding filters needed while
>shooting outdoor film under tungsten lights (100 Watt). Why would i
>need to use a 82b aND 80a filter, and not just a 82b?
Wayne, the real determining factor is not the wattage of the
lamps, but their color temperature, as expressed in degrees Kelvin (or
just K). I regularly shoot under tungstun (quatrz halogen) lamps with
an 80B filter and get very good results. Assuming you do not have
access to a color temperature meter (I don't), then your best bet is
to find what the manufacturer rates your lamps at for color temp, and
filter accordingly. The other question is `how accurate does the final
color need to be'? I use both 3200K and 3400K lamps, sometimes mixed,
when shooting people, and get very good results for skintone (which is
my benchmark). On the other hand when shooting art pieces for artists,
we keep the color temp as consistant as possibile, and filter much
closer, many times doing test rolls.
From: "Bruce T. Ritchie, P.S.C."
What book did you use as a reference? Is it possible to get the title, author
and ISBN number off you?
I am presuming that if I just used one of the filters and a outdoor film the
shots would have been yellow, right?
Organization: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, S.A.
The Kodak book I used is their Publication B-3, Kodak Filters for Scientific
and Technical Uses, Kodak Cat 152 8108. It has a ISBN # of 0-87985-282-8.
You may be able to obtain a copy from Kodak by calling their Hot Line @
1-800-242-2424. The copy I have has a price of $ 11.95 printed on it but the
book is a few years old.
A fairly comprehensive technical reference or textbook on technical questions
is Materials and Processes of Photography by Stroebel, Compton, Zakia and
Current published by Focal Press. Or their Basic Photographic Materials and
let me know if I can be of further assistance, andy
From: "Andrew Davidhazy"
Are 3200K and 3500K standard light temperatures used in studio situations? Why
not use 5500K bulbs, wouldn't that give a light source that is more white? I
can see that a slightly yellow (ie. using only one of the 80A and 82B filter
sets for 100 Watt tungsten bulbs) could enhance skin tones, but could you not
get a similar effect by diffusing a white light. This would reduce the
bleaching effect of the whiter light source.
And now for something completely different (Where did I hear that before?)
Have you ever shot sky (blue) with Ektar 25? I have been finding that the
higher from the horizon you aim, the deeper the blue is. Also polarization does
not seem as drastic as with other films such as Kodacolor gold 100 or
Ectachrome 100. My skies are comming out baby blue with a polarizer and a very
pale blue without. Any comments?
Yes, with only one of the two filters the pictures would turn out on the
yellow side. The 80A does most of the correcting. The 82B is a very pale blue.
The problem with not making tungsten bulbs so they operate at daylight color
temperatures is that the filaments would not last. Manufacturers do make 5500 K
balanced photofloods by incorporating a pale blue filter on the coating of the
bulb. This allows you to use these floods while also having daylight present in
the scene. Using filters on the camera would preclude mixing the two light
... also, the standards for color temperature of photofloods are 3200 and 3400
degrees Kelvin. also, BTW, if you use color negative film typically color
conversion filters are not needed, only for transparency films that can not be
corrected at the printing stage. But you probably already knew this...
Subj: filters for tungsten
Wayne (and anyone else out there who is interested...just covering my tracks.:-)
If you consult your friendly Koday Professional Photograpy guide (publication
#R-28 latest revision) you will find a handy device called a "color temperature
balance dial" which gives you the filtration for various light
sources depending on film used, and, yes, with a 100 watt domestic tungsten
bulb you need 80A+82B for daylight film...
Why? you ask..simple, because daylight film is balanced for 5500 kelvins,
and 100 watt bulbs emit a color temp of about 2900 K. NOw, photo lights
intended for tungsten type L film (the one most used with hot lights) emit
at about 3200 K which is what the 80A filter is designed to convert to daylight
balance....hence, you need a bit more blue for the 100 watt bulb to
compensate for the extra 300 degree shift, and an 82B in combination
with an 80A does the trick.
From: Brian Segal
Subj: daylight photo bulbs
Daylight filtered photo bulbs are not very accurate or consistent, and they
have a short working life...I used them for a while and was constantly
disappointed with the color results.
The best course of action, of course, is to (A) use a color meter to
color filtration and (B) shoot a test roll if accuracy is important.
Color meters have lots of interesting applications..for instance you can
purposely bias your image by entering either a too blue or too yellow
temp into the meter's memory and then it will tell you what filters to
use for the desired effest under varying light conditions.
In that way, you will affect the color balance of your film.
You really notice the benifits of color metering and filtration when shooting
under overcast skies or at mid-day when there is lots of blue bias
in the environment. SHots that would normally be kind of cold and washed out
become full of color and life when tweaked with some 81 series and magenta fil
filters in combo..
From: Brian Segal
Note 15.04 -< 5 vs. 7 sprocket format stereo cameras >-
Subj: RE: sprocket question in 3D photography
> What is meant when you talk about 5 sprocket or 7 sprocket film in reference
> to stereo photography?
The distance between two sprockets (or perforation-holes) is 4.750 +- 0.013 mm
or 0.1870 +-0.0005 inches (according to ASA Standard Z22.36-1947).
So the 5 sprocket format means stereo images that are 23.75mm wide (e.g. those
taken with the Stereo Realist: format 24 x 23 mm (the extra .75mm is needed
as a separation between the pictures).
The 7 sprocket format (33.25mm) is also called the 24 x 30 mm format and is
used by the FED, the Belplasca and the Verascope F40.
From: Alexander Klein, Stuttgart, Germany, email@example.com
Note 15.05 -< Several observations about Kodak B&W IR film >-
Several personal observations about Kodak IR B&W film:
1. It does not have an antihalation backing. This allows light + IR piping into
cassette and also promotes halation in the vicinity of overexposed areas.
2. The film can be loaded/unloaded from camera in subdued lighting especially
if the light is poor in IR content such as that from fluorescent bulbs.
I think the reason the Kodak suggests total darkness is that they can obviously
not predict what any given person will interpret as "subdued" so they just say
"total" and are thus covered. Exposure, even fogging exposure, being time as
well as intensity dependent, would also indicate that one would want to keep
the exposure to even "subdued" light as short as possible.
3. Use with a red filter sort of negates some of the reasons that you'd want to
use this film as it will record red along with the IR record.
4. Use with 87, 87C or other truly IR filter limits you to static subjects or
use of a rangefinder or twin lens reflex camera or use of an auxiliary finder
if used on a SLR camera .... unless...
5. you place the 87C or such filter between the mirror of your SLR and the film
plane. This can be easily accomplished by cutting a piece of filter that is
about 23.5mm x 45mm in size and placing it between the film plane guide rails
that the film travel over. There is plenty of room for the thin gelatin filter
to sit there held in place by equally thin pieces of Scotch translucent tape at
alternatively, a larger piece can be placed carefully in front of the shutter
but behind the mirror. Do this only with cameras that do not have OTF metering
systems. Note: do either at you own risk. I never had a problem but can not be
responsible for someone's finger going through their shutter! :-)
5. Some light meters can be calibrated to read IR in such a manner that their
indications will yield closer to correct exposure than simple guesses.
6. If you are going to calibrate a meter to read IR through a 88, 87 or 87C
filter then make sure you use it in the reflected metering mode as incident
readings in IR mean very little since you do not know the inherent IR
reflectivity of the subject.
7. IR film does not need extreme care in handling but it should be similar to
what you would give color film that is about to or which contains irreplaceable
images. Extra care is warranted but the film is not going to fall apart on you
as long as you take reasonable care with it.
8. Because IR film is quite transparent to IR (as well as visible) you may find
an overall regular pattern of spots all over your film. If you do check your
camera's pressure plate. It probably also has a similar set of "dimples" on its
surface. The IR is collected by these and focused back onto the IR film
producing a reproduction of the dimpled pattern onto the film.
9. If you use IR film in dark situations you can place an IR filter over your
flash and take flash pictures with the flash becoming unobtrusive. Probably you
will not want to use an IR filter over your lens at the same time if doing
"candid" flash photography. Skin tones will, however, be reproduced rather a
lighter tone than on regular film because of the high IR reflectance of skin,
any skin. Thus persons with rather dark complexion will appear as light in tone
as those of lighter complexion.
10. If you do not want to buy a large IR filter to use over your flash, you can
improvise by using a sheet of developed but unexposed color film such a
Ektachrome or Fujichrome. Even though the film appears absolutely black it
transmits IR quite freely.
well, that 10 is observations. That is enough for today. Got to go shovel.
Note 15.06 -< Precision Pinhole Parts for Pinhole Photographers >-
Do you need precision pinholes and plans for your pinhole camera? Read on.
I now have precision pinholes in brass which have been laser diffraction tested
for size and uniformity. Prices are $5.00 for one, $7.50 for two or $10.00 for
three. Matched sets (+/- 1/4 f-stop) are available for panoramic pinhole
cameras. Prices include plans for three pinhole cameras including a panoramic
one. The panoramic camera can use three or more pinholes. Add $2.00 for each
additional pinhole over three.
Large quantities available for photography classes. Send email requesting info
on the quantity you need. Pinholes come with data stating hole size so you can
make preliminary f-stop approximation and all instructions. Send orders to:
Jim Michael, Box 941124, Atlanta, GA 30341 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- this was posted on rec.photo on the Internet Netnews -
Note 15.07 -< Reversal Processing of Black and White paper >-
PROCESSING ENLARGING PAPER AS A POSITIVE
...means you can use the paper in a camera and make one-of-a-kind images...
...roughly collected from info seen in various rec.photo postings...
If you use the paper as a material in the camera then you may wish to consider
using Panalure for "normal" looking results in terms of tonal reproduction.
This is becasue normal B&W papers are not sensitive to red and thus anything
colored red in a scene will turn out very dark or black.
You can also make B&W prints directly from slides this way. Place a slide in
the enlarger and project it onto B&W paper. Again, to maintain more natural
looking tones use Panalure.
The chemicals and processing steps are as follows:
First Developer 60-90 seconds
Rinse 30 seconds
Bleach R-9 30-60 seconds
Rinse 30 seconds
Clear CB-1 30 seconds
Rinse 30 seconds
Expose to light 40 W bulb for 5-10 seconds at 12 inches
Second Developer 30-60 seconds
Fix 30-60 seconds
Wash Normal paper washing time
First Developer: The original literature referring to this method of making
positive prints from slides is Kodak Publication G-14, "Direct Positive
Photography". You can probably get a copy of it by calling the Kodak Hot Line
at 800-242-2424. In any case, that booklet specified a high contrast developer
such as D-88. Dektol or D-72 dilited 1:1 can probably be substituted
successfully for D-88.
Rinses should be under running water, or at least two changes in the 30
The bleach is modified Kodak Bleach R-9:
Water 800 mL
Potassium Dichromate 9.5 g
Sodium Bisulfate 66 g
Water to make 1 L
Sodium Sulfite 90 g
Water to make 1 L
Second Developer can be Dektol again. Or if you want a sepia toned print,
skip the light exposure and use Sulfide Redeveloper T-19 (Sodium Sulfide
20 g with water to make 1 L).
As with any positive process, the resultant density value is opposite from
ordinarily processed paper: More exposure = lighter print, less exposure
= darker print.
Note 15.08 -< Making POLAROID Color Transfer Prints >-
Here's the scoop on the transfer process.
For Polarid info call Polaroid Technical Assistance Hotline 800/225-1618
There's also a booklet available: Professional Guide to Image Transfer Polaroid
films: Any peel apart color material no SX-70's and no B/W or Time Zero.
Substrates: Hot press watercolor paper, Cold press watercolor paper, Rice paper
Other (wood, leather, cotton, silk)
1. Prep the watercolor paper or surface you'll make the transfer onto. Soak
paper's in distilled water that's warm to the touch. Some folks use a bit of
photo flo in the water and other's use sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH. Wet
materials work better than dry one's. I've had good luck with soaking rice
paper's in room temp. distilled water, blotting it between layers of paper
towels and then putting it on a small piece of wood, a stage if you will, that
those nasty 'Roid chemicals can touch etc. For some odd reason the wood which
is about 1/4" thick and 5x7" is just right for the transfers and handy to pick
up and hold under a light, move around etc. while you're making a transfer.
2. Make an image on the Polaroid film. This can either be done with a 4 X 5 or
8 X 10 Polaroid back or by taking a 35mm slide and making a Polaroid print by
using a Vivitar Slide Printer.
3. Pull the Polaroid through the rollers to pop the chemical pod and coat the
negative. Approximate processing times are 10-15 seconds. Then peel the
Polaroid "print" or receiver sheet from the negative. I'm going with 10 sec.
times for images that have large amounts of red in them, longer times for
4. Gently put the negative in contact with the wet paper you've prepped. Roll
the top of the neg. with something akin to an ink roller for good contact. Some
folks use a press, their hands or a brick for this. Turn the paper & negative
over and gently rub the back of the paper with your fingers as if pressing out
an air bubble. Fastest transfer time would be around 90 seconds and the longest
times run around 30-40 minutes. The Average transfer time's recommended by
Polaroid are 2-5 minutes. Two minutes is working just great for me.
5. Very slowly and gently peel the negative off of the paper. Use the tab to
pull with and keep the neg. almost parallel to the paper. If you're losing
blacks or shadows that's image lifting and you're pulling too fast.
6. Step back and admire the darn thing! At this point you could send it to a
printer for separations, let it dry and use if for a display print or add other
elements to the image with pastels, colored pencils, dye's, chalk, oils etc., I
mean hey... it's a piece of paper right ?
I saw some very good results done with a Vivitar slide printer (print size
about 3X4), both with color E-6 materials & PolaPan B/W and Polachrome self
processing 35mm films. The slide copier also accepts filters so that you can
change many things with that feature as well. (ie, up the red content since
red's don't transfer all that well) The rep. I talked to on the phone said that
he got better results with hot press watercolor paper. A cold press paper will
have a texture to it and can be difficult to use when you're first trying it
all out, but then again the same texture can add another element to your image.
I've had great luck using rice papers. My local source sells a *very wide*
variety and ships everywhere. You might give 'em a call and ask for a catalog.
" Dan Smith Inc. " Orders: 800/426.6740 Cust. Service: 800/426.7923
They might have an Oriental Paper Sampler, just ask. These folks have large
sheets of rice paper with leaf's, butterflie's in them. The range of papers is
amazing, they even carry papyrus. When you're on the phone with them ask if
they know of thier counterpart in your neck of the woods. Reason being that you
should find a table with paper thats been "damaged" in transit and sold at a
good discount. A goofed up corner on a 30x42" sheet really doesn't matter all
that much for 'Roid transfers if you're cutting it up anyway.
I've found a great paper that's about $7 for a sheet thats around 1 sq. foot in
size. So when working with a new image I use a cheaper paper, thinner and cut
from a larger sheet to make my proofs on. The thin paper dries out in 30 min.,
one time when I was in a hurry I was nuking the transfers and they looked just
Polaroid also makes a slide copier that projects a 35mm frame onto an 8 X 10
sheet of Polaroid film (the Polaprinter). It's a rather large desktop unit. Of
course you'll also need the desktop processor for the 8 X 10's. The list price
for the Polaprinter is $1,629.90 (street price under $1K) and the Vivitar one
lists for $160.00 but is available from your local dealer at a more reasonable
price. ($115-125.00) Or from DAK for about $60.00 The image transfer process
has become so popular that Polaroid is now selling a starter kit which consists
of a tray, rubber roller and a pack of film. It lists for $39.34
Talking to the rep. on the hotline I was told that to keep an image archival
you need to either re-photograph it or get color separations made. Because
there are so many variables in different stages that everyone uses it's almost
impossible for them to even start advanced ageing research.i.e. Boston tap
water is the best, NYC water is the best ... ink rollers are best, bricks are
best, long vs. short times.
Have a blast!
Don Smith Photography email@example.com>
From _Test_ Polaroid's magazine for professionals. "
Photographer: Myron's techniques "underexpose transparency 1/2 stop for better
color saturation and to avoid contrast problems.orange & red will transfer to
the Polaroid receiver sheet first, therefore the short process time.soak
watercolor paper, squeegee it and then give a half an hour to dry. Paper that's
too wet causes bleeding of colors.transfer times of 30 to 90 minutes depending
on color range in the original and type of paper you're using.loss of blacks
indicates too fast a pull of the negative from the paper.Myron air dries the
paper which then buckles, he mists it with some water and then puts it into a
hot dry mount press for about 30 seconds. Then flattens them with a weight.
From: IN%"PHOTO-L%BUACCA.BitNet@pucc.PRINCETON.EDU" "Photography Phorum"
Subj: RE: polaroid transfers
Here are ten good tips for making Polaroid transfer prints.
1. Select a receptor sheet that will help you get the type of results you want.
The tooth of the paper has a big role in the image quality.
2. Be careful to eliminate excess water from the receptor sheet.
If the receptor sheet is too wet, excess developer will remain on the
transferred image, causing the dyes to liquify and run.
3. As a rule, the sooner you peel the film, the better the colors.
10 seconds is the optimum development time. Pulling any sooner than that
the dyes might not have had enough time to begin migration. Pulling later
than that, the migration of dyes will alter the color balance of the image.
After about ten seconds, the negative has almost all of the cyan dye, about
half of the magenta dye, and very little of the yellow dye. This explains
why most transfers have a cyan bias. To correct, use between 10cc and 20cc
4. Press the negative against the receptor sheet evenly.
In areas where the pressure wasn't applied evenly, the emulsion may peel
5. Soft rollers work better than rough ones.
6. When rolling your image, don't press too hard.
IF you use too much pressure, the image will not stick well to the receptor
sheet. For best results, start at one end and roll smoothly, with even
and moderate pressure.
7. Peel the negative away slowly.
This is to help prevent tearing of the emulsion.
8. Manipulation of colors is easiest done by using filters during exposure.
Watercolors are great for spotting too.
9. Storage of film should be around 70F with normal humidity.
Adverse conditions can affect transfer capabilities of the film.
10.Clean camera roller routinely.
Shmutz on the rollers will show up on the transfers. Also, becareful
not to scratch the rollers as the scratches will show up too.
Some other ideas possible transfer problems:
Water ph has an effect on transfers. Images do not adhere as well with water
of low ph. For best results, water ph should be sesven or higher. When in
doubt, use distilled water for consistent results.
Make sure that you soak the receptor sheet well. After soaking, make sure
to squeegee as much excess water as possible.
Don't wait too long before placing the negative on the receptor sheet. The
dyes will dry out and affect transfer and adhesion.
After rolling the sandwiched negative and receptor sheet, wait between 90sec
and two minutes before peeling the negative away.
Note 15.09 --
... sample model release FYI and consideration:
In consideration of my engagement as a model, and for other good
and valuable consideration herein acknowledged as received, I
hereby grant to ("Photographer"), his/her heirs, legal
representatives and assigns, those for whom Photographer is acting,
and those acting with her/his authority and permission, the irrevocable
and unrestricted right and permission to copyright, in his/her own name
or otherwise, and use, re-use, publish, and re-publish photographic
portraits or pictures of me or in which I may be included, in whole
or in part, or composite or distorted in character form, without
restriction as to the changes or alteration, in conjunction with my
own or a fictitious name, or reproductions thereof in color or
otherwise, made through any medium at her/his studios or elsewhere, and
in any and all media now or hereafter known for illustration,
promotion, art, editorial, advertising, trade, or any other purpose
whatsoever. I also consent to the use of any printed matter in
I hereby waive any right that I may have to inspect or approve
the finished product or products and the advertising copy or other
matter that may be used in connection therewith or the use to which
it may be applied.
I hereby release, discharge and agree to save harmless
Photographer, his/her heirs, legal representatives and assigns, and all
the persons acting under his permission or authority or those for
whom he/she is acting from liability by virtue or any blurring,
distortion, alteration, optical illusion, or use in composite form,
whether intentional or otherwise, that may occur or be produced in
the taking of said picture or in any subsequent processing thereof,
as well as any publication thereof, including without limitation
any claims for libel or invasion of privacy.
I hereby warrant that I am of full age and have the right to
contract in my own name. I have read the above authorization,
release, and agreement, prior to its execution, and I am fully
familiar with the contents thereof. This release shall be binding
upon me and my heirs, legal representatives, and assigns.
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