In any aqueous solution, water dissociates slightly to form hydrogen ion ([ H+ ]) and hydroxide ion ([ OH- ]).

In an aqueous solution, the product of the hydrogen ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration is known as Kw.

pH is a quantitative description of the acidity of an aqueous solution. pH can be described as

where [ H+ ] is the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution. pH values between 4 ([ H+ ] = 10-4 M) and 10 ([ H+ ] = 10-10 M) are nomally used for ion exchange chromatography

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